Saturday, August 31, 2019
This essay will cover the similarities and differences between two Artworks Ã¢â¬ The Little fourteen -Year- Old DancerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ Baboon and youngÃ¢â¬ . Discussion about this works of Art will be based on the field manÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis, thus description, analysis, interpretation and judgement on the subject matter, media and size, location and literal qualities, social, cultural and political issues surrounding the creation of the Artworks but in the form of compare and contrast. I will also discuss how these inspirational sources have contributed to my final project outcome with regard to composition and technique. Baboon and young and The little fourteen year old dancer are free-standing sculptures depicting life through different animals. These artworks are of different sizes, The little fourteen year old dancer is 104.5 cm while The baboon and young is 21cm respectively. They are both made the same media casted bronze. The fourteen year old dancer has been portrayed wearing a bronze vest and shoes, a cotton skirt and satin ribbon a combination which displays different surface qualities thus creating a strong contrast of tactile texture. This is emphasized by Ragans R. (2002: 203) by saying: What an unusual combination of textures! The figure of the Young dancer is cast in bronze. Even the vest and the ballet Shoes she wears are bronze. To that degas added a skirt made of gauzelike fabric in a stain hair ribbon. The composition comprising of a series of diagonal lines as shown by the posture of the head, torso and legs in The little fourteen year old dancer thus suggesting a subtle or calm movement are not visible on The baboon and young. The curvy and diagonal employed on skirt to show the folds have further illustrated the idea of subtle movement on the little fourteen year old dancer while on the baboon and young we see meal strips at the back ofÃ the tail. The Baboon and young is made by Pablo Picasso around 1955while The little fourteen year old dancer was made by Edgar Degas in 1880.PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s work was found in the Museum of modern art in New York and DegasÃ¢â¬â¢s is currently exhibited at the Metropolitan museum of Art in New York. They were both found in New York. Both of the two charming Art made using the same techniques . Picasso casted bronze as well as Degas the only difference is that Degas added cotton on the skirt a and satin ribbon. Organic shapes are mostly dominating in both sculptures as compared to geometric shapes, therefore, these bring a sense of three dimensionality or form hence resembling the nature of a Baboon and a young female dancer. They both portray a strong sense of balance though its irregular symmetry and they are static man-made artworks. In the little dancer balance have been achieved through a posture in which the head is thrown backwards and chest pushing outward while in The Baboon and young balance is achieved by a tail hanging diagonally and a baby on the chest of the Baboon pulling it forward. Space has been used effectively in both pieces. Both Artists displayed a creative use of space to render the flow of the pose. For instance, the space between the legs arms as well as the facial gaze into distance complement the action of a female dancer at the end of performance and a female Baboon after being blessed with a baby. Besides , The little dancer and The Baboon and young both have a lifelike presence and they feel like animals they represent instead of looking like them. That is they both show a real life situations. Though PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s work is simplified and stylised, it is detailed in some way. By looking at the BaboonÃ¢â¬â¢s head which is a model of a toy car , there are human head like figures appearing on the carÃ¢â¬â¢s windscreen which symbolises the eyes of the baboon. There is also a grill of the same car which suggests a nose and the mudguards suggesting the baboonÃ¢â¬â¢s cheekbones or jaws. A thick bold curvy line under the grill of the toy car suggests the smiling mouth of a baboon. All this features symbolises a bright happy face of a baboon which indicates that it is really itÃ¢â¬â¢s joyful moment during a summer season. TheÃ reason for saying it is summer is that summer is the season of reproduction and this baboon is holding itÃ¢â¬â¢s young one. One can tell from the gigantic smile shown on the face that the baboon has been blessed with a baby. Comparing with PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s work , The little dancer Ã¢â¬Ës pose portrays a captured moment in time during a performance. Both the facial and bodily gesture, that is the half opened eyes into infinity, and diagonal right leg suggest a moment of suspense. That is the time when the dancer has just finished a performance and taking a deep breath of relief-eye half closed, lips tightly closed and breath taken in through the nostrils. This posture shows that the Little girl is happy about what she has done and she is proud about it. Looking at a combination of her clothing we can say that this little girl is a dancer by profession. It also shows that it is summer . I say this because summer is the period of celebrations and this girl was dancing in a celebration. The design of the vest and the skirt also depicts the sense of summer. These features shows a posture that suggest the action of a flexible young female dancer at the verge of a performance thus showing how young ones are a ctive in life. Both of these impressive works were very much successful which means Picasso and Degas achieved their goals. The Baboon and young in particular evokes emotional turmoil about how females like their young ones. The little fourteen -year old dancer also shows how females accepts and promotes nature in their lives. I can say, literally, the Baboon is appreciating what is being done by The little dancer and so it does not regret having a child but instead hope that itÃ¢â¬â¢s young one would be successful in life like this girl. I can also say looking at The little girl we can say she is performing on the birthday party of a newly born baboon on PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s work.Texture and gradation of value in both artworks gives a sense of three dimensionality and life. These artworks portray the personality of the artists who made them, that is, they are creative more especially with the use of media, styles even the way they made their pieces. Apparently the artists might have been living in an environment where there was a lot of happiness and so they are showing it in different ways. The overall view about The little fourteen-year old dancer and The baboon and young is that, they poses different qualities but are the same in some way. A great distinction can made looking at the details indicated in both sculptureÃ¢â¬â¢s heads. The BaboonÃ¢â¬â¢s head is more detailed than the, The little dancerÃ¢â¬â¢s but they are both free standing sculptures. Due to some features mentioned earlier in the essay, the two artworks depict the same message, they communicate how females are the happiest creatures on earth and how happiness can be shown in different ways. I equally like both of these artworks due to the fact that lots and lots of creativity is shown in both of them. They are also interesting and eye catching and they portray a strong message. These inspirational sources have contributed to my final project which is HAPPINESS. My projects shows people dancing to a traditional music thus depicting the message that even in our tradition we have our own ways of showing happiness. REFERENCE Pablo Picasso.(1950)http://home.xnet.com/~stanko/baboon.htm Edgar Degas,(1879).OlgaÃ¢â¬â¢s Gallery ,The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.Retrived:July 2004, from http://www.abcgallery.com/D/degas/degas47.html Janson. H.W (1995), History of Art, Harry. N. Abrams .New York Ragans R.(1999) Art talk (2ed) Mc Graw-Hill.New York
Friday, August 30, 2019
Marketing: Foundations and applications Course code: BMAN-20390 Marketing analysis of IBM 1. 0 Thesis statement Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluate the marketing strategy of a blue-chip company you are familiar with. Your evaluation should critically discuss the concept of the marketing mix as applied to your chosen organisation and at least one other academic marketing theory. Ã¢â¬ 2. 0 Limitations IBM is a very large organization so the planning process of a marketing strategy that is coherent with the corporate strategy is made complicated and difficult because IBM operates in a number of significantly different markets.I have therefore since I am an employee of IBM Denmark decided that this is the Ã¢â¬Å"strategic business unitÃ¢â¬ that I am going to analyze in terms of their marketing strategy. Furthermore the portfolio of products that IBM Denmark supplies ranges from everything to hardware sales, software sales and consultancy services. There might be a significant difference in the way the se products are promoted, and I have therefore narrowed it further down to focus on the tertiary activities, meaning the marketing strategy of the consultancy services (in IBM known as GBS Ã¢â¬â Global Business Services).This limitation is convenient because it allows me to properly analyze the marketing strategy in this given area Ã¢â¬â as opposed to making an analysis based upon IBM as a whole with their entire portfolio of products, as this would not be fulfilling in a 2500 word essay. 3. 0 Preface IBM mission statement: Ã¢â¬Å"At IBM, we strive to lead in the invention, development, and manufacture of the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s most advanced information technologies, including computer systems, software, storage systems, and microelectronics.We translate these advanced technologies into value for our customers through our professional solutions, services, and consulting businesses worldwideÃ¢â¬ . From the mission statement above we can conclude that IBM wants to be a leader o n the blue-chip market Ã¢â¬â which we in terms of their size can conclude they are close to being. In the following essay the reader will be introduced to the marketing strategy of IBM. Furthermore the reader will be introduced to a SWOT analysis, in which it will be discussed and concluded which strategic position IBM has on the current market.In regards to the limitation above this will be an analysis based upon IBMs services provision in Denmark. The reader will find out that the classical approach with the 4ps of marketing doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really apply to this part of the business that IBM conducts. Instead an additional three Ps has been added, and these will be discussed as well. SWOT Analysis One of the trustiest tools in business is the SWOT analysis. Corporations takes a calm, cool look down at the organisations Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and ThreatÃ¢â¬â¢s.Then they seek to capitalise on the strengths, eliminate the weaknesses, seize the best opportunities and counter the threats. Figure 4. 1 is a SWOT analysis of the global business services for IBM, and the end result of this analysis should help us to give a clear view of IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic position on the market, which we then can use to discuss their marketing strategy. Figure 4. 1 Ã¢â¬â IBM DK GBS SWOT Strengths: IBM Denmark has been on the Danish market since 1950 Ã¢â¬â which leaves them with a significant amount of experience of the market.The wide range of their strategic competencies runs from everything from hardware-sales to business consultancy, the latter being one of their profitable areas of expertise. Furthermore IBM DK has a leading position on the Danish services market, being one of the biggest consultancy houses in the country. It is the combination of its size and experience on the market that leaves them to be one of the preferred business partners in Denmark and in the rest of the world. IBM Denmark like most companies believes it is necessary to have a t alented workforce.IBM is present at local universities promoting themselves with the purpose of future recruitment. Through this initiative they attract the students they believe is prospects as future IBM leaders, and sign them off before their competitors. Furthermore IBM is extremely flexible, meaning that leaders across country borders are stationed in different parts of the world. A lot of IBM DKs top leaders are individuals who have a history with IBM, but only in a different SBU. Weaknesses: Being located in Denmark one is urged to believe that it is inevitable to have high operating costs, especially labour cost.Denmark does have one of the highest salary rates in the world. And with a personnel count of nearly 5. 000 people this results in big money. Opportunities: With the increased focus on the environment in recent years Ã¢â¬â IBM must be innovative and continue to lead the market by supplying greener solutions to their customers. A growing body of evidence asserts th at corporations can do well, by doing good. IBM must differentiate their brand and reputation as well as their products and services, by taking responsibility for the wellbeing of the societies and environments in which they operate.Practicing corporate social responsibility can generate significant returns to their business. Furthermore if IBM could reduce their operating costs, then it would also be possible to reduce their prices, without compromising with the quality of their products. IBM has already taken initiatives to reduce their labour costs. Danish consultants requires a high salary rate, which is why IBM DK wherever possible tries to limit the amount of these consultants. Instead they will bring consultants from India and other low cost countries to Denmark and assign them to the project that is to be executed.This allows them to sell the service for a more competitive price. It has been discussed if IBM should completely shut down its locations in the EU, and outsource the entire European operations to low cost countries Ã¢â¬â however I personally believe that this would be compromising the quality of the service provided as it surely must be necessary to have people with local market knowledge assisting on the projects. Threats: As the world continues to get smaller, IBM like other big corporations faces the challenge of outsourcing.Especially IBM Denmark is threatened by outsourcing, as Denmark has the highest tax rate in the world, which will force IBM to have higher prices, than what is offered abroad Ã¢â¬â leaving them more vulnerable to the threat of outsourcing. Furthermore the introduction of changes in various services are not patentable (reference: http://www. mgutheses. org/page/? q=T%200984&search=&page=&rad=#43, page 32), meaning that the innovativeness of a company like IBM can easily be adopted by newcomers to the market.Also, as a service is not a manufactured product, but really a transaction of knowledge Ã¢â¬â it is hard to imagine that it is capital intensive to enter the service industry. Marketing mix Ã¢â¬Å"The marketing mix is an imperative concept in modern marketing and academically it is referred to as a set of controllable tools that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market, so it consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for its productsÃ¢â¬ (Kotler and Armstrong 2004).The easiest way to understand the main aspects of marketing is through the famous 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing, which was introduced and suggested by McCarthy in 1960 (reference: http://university-essays. tripod. com/marketing_mix. html). It includes marketing strategies of product, price, placement and promotion. It is however interesting if this also applies to a company that sells services and not a material product. Given the unique and distinguishing features of the service industry, researchers have offered different models and approaches to the marketing of se rvices.It is suggested that services marketing does not only include external marketing reaching the customers, but also an internal marketing strategy to motivate the employees (reference: A service quality model and its implications, Christian Gronross, vol 18, No. 4, 1984, pp. 36-44). Figure 2 Ã¢â¬â The triangle model of services marketing Company Internal MarketingExternal Marketing Employees Customers Interactive Marketing As stated above the internal marketing is for the company to motivate their employees to serve its customers in the best possible way.External marketing is when the company makes its service available to its customers to increase the demand. The interactive marketing involves to the effort of employees to win customers loyalty in the process of their interaction with the customers in delivering the services. This must be closely related to internal marketing. In IBM DK, the consultants and salespeople are paid partly in a fixed salary scheme and a variable scheme depending on their results. Furthermore these same IBM representatives will receive an annual bonus, if IBM on the given project has reached a certain percentage of profit.These incentives through salaries and bonuses can be associated to what we clarify as internal marketing. For the external marketing side Ã¢â¬â the traditional marketing mix as we know them through the 4pÃ¢â¬â¢s can also be applied on services marketing as they are applied on tangible goods. But it is discussed to be difficult. Which is why for services marketing, a modified marketing mix has been developed. The services marketing mix comprises 7pÃ¢â¬â¢s and these include the following: * Product * Price * Place * Promotion * People * Process * Physical evidenceIt is important to look closer at some of these PÃ¢â¬â¢s, which will be done in the following. Product: The most important question to be asked here is Ã¢â¬Å"are these the right products or services for our customers todayÃ¢â¬ ? IBM cont inues to be the leading innovator on the market, spending billions of dollars every year in their research centers providing their customers with the newest technologies and always making sure that the quality of the products is of IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s usual reputed quality. Price: As anyone can imagine the price of the service provided is essential for whether or not IBM wins the customer over.As soon as the appropriate experts has analyzed the pre project resources that is to be needed for the project he informs the pricing department. The pricer then based on these assumptions, inflation, currency differences, management desired PTI % (pre tax income), and our cost case calculated a price that is then been presented to the customer. Promotion: When promoting their services IBM first make rational decions on which businesses to approach. Then they divide their promotion into how big the markets are, e. g a segment could be small and medium businessÃ¢â¬ . Within a specific constituency m arket, IBM first identifies which businesses make the most sense to connect with. Then, the IBM determines the most efficient way to reach each of them. whether through individualized marketing or a creative combination of IBM's go-to-market strategiesÃ¢â¬ IBM also enters the business community through professional associations and organizations. Such groups generate interest in IBM and may even help IBM identify new business partners. By sponsoring and participating with them, IBM is able to communicate its message of value to the member businesses.Furthermore IBM through their marketing incentives has adopted a more emotional approach in the way they promote themselves. Rai Cockfield VP Market development states that all people prior to purchase asks the following Ã¢â¬Å"Does this product or service meet my need? Is the company reputable? And is the price reasonable? Ã¢â¬ Today, he adds a more pressing question, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you reaching me in the way that I see myself? Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬Å"That's what endears a person to a company and a product,Ã¢â¬ he says. (reference: http://www-03. ibm. com/employment/us/diverse/50/ads. html. ) People: An important ingredient to any service provision, is as we have discussed above having qualified personnel. Recruiting the right staff and people and training them appropriately in the delivery of services is essential if IBM wants to continue having their competitive advantage. Providing a service is partly the quality of the service and the quality of the people that delivers it, as these are in constant contact with the customer. As mentioned above, IBM has had university partnerships in order to recruit students. Process:When selling their services IBM has two processes. Either the customer comes to IBM looking for an offer on a service they need provided. IBM then sends the appropriate people to analyse the resources that are needed to provide this service. An offer is then presented to the customer. A different proc ess is when we have existing customers, the client manager is responsible for looking for new business services that we can provide them. And then the process starts over, in regards to presenting an offer after calculating the resources we need for the project.Conclusion IBM wants to be the leader on the Danish market. And in terms of their size we can conclude that they are close to being just that. From the SWOT analysis above we saw that IBM has the needed experience and size to be one of the biggest consultancy houses in the country and in the world. Furthermore with the increasing focus on the environment IBM has the possibility to be the leading innovator for greener solutions Ã¢â¬â an opportunity that they have successfully capitalized on through their continued research for more environmental solutions.However despite IBM being a big player on the Danish services market, it is important that they reduce their high operating costs. By bringing Indian and other low cost co nsultants into the game, they have somewhat succeeded in doing this as these have lower salary rates. In the marketing of services we have concluded that an external marketing effort is not enough for successfully promoting itself. An internal marketing strategy is also essential for obtaining success. IBM must motivate its employees as these are the focalpoint to customer, in which case it is important that they are motivated and happy.In promoting and marketing themselves IBM has also realised that they in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world they must reach their customers on a more personal level, and not merely connect through reputation and price. Connecting with its customers on a personal level and delivering top quality services is what keeps IBM on top of their game and in even in rough financial times they have succeeded in being one of the top choices as business partner.References Websites:http://www. entrepreneur. om/marketing/article70824. htmlhttp://www. scribd. com/doc/10999474/IBM -Strategic-Analysishttp://www. simplemarketingblog. com/2009/06/sandy-carter-integrates-social-media. htmlhttp://www. itsma. com/ezine/analytics-optimize-marketing-mix/http://university-essays. tripod. com/marketing_mix. html
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Am I an etrepreneur - Essay Example Entrepreneurs will gather resources and take the risk of investing these resources into a venture that they are not certain will bring profits, and this is what will cut them out from just normal business people. Creativity and innovation are paramount for entrepreneurs as creativity enables them to develop, and discover new ways of bringing solutions while innovation gives them the ability to apply creative solutions to problems and openings in their effort to enhance peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives and make profits. Entrepreneurship will entail the actions taken by entrepreneurs to bring about change and to attain financial benefits and the satisfaction that something was changed for the better. Entrepreneurship will also entail the act of creating something after seeing an opportunity, shaping a goal to be achieved and taking advantage of the situation in order to make profits (Gilbert, 2006). The entrepreneur or the person with the idea will then plan, persuade and raise the capital needed to initiate the business from where he will run the business to ensure success. For entrepreneurs to be deemed as successful various characteristics are required, which will play a crucial role in determining their entrepreneurial success. Personally, as an entrepreneur, I have realized that I have the required skills and knowledge needed to become successful in the banking sector. I have engaged in various activities that have proved to me that I can be rich and successful as it has been my long term goal to be rich and retain control of my ventures (Gilbert, 2006). At a tender age, I engaged in various money raising ventures that have enabled me to cater for my personal needs and also save a lot. In fifth grade, I made profits from noticing that students were carrying snacks to school, and there was only one canteen in school that was unable to attend to the needs of the whole school. Being a member of the business club in school, I developed the idea that we could start our own canteen, where we could employ one person to run the business. Other students supp orted the idea, and we proposed the idea to the school administration, which was reluctant to accept it, but finally did after we convinced them that it would not interfere with our studies. We collected start up from membership fees that were charged for admission into the business club from where we started the venture. Profits from the canteen were used to expand the venture and by the time I was clearing school the canteen had grown and all members had benefited from it, and the whole school had also benefited from readily available snack. I have ever since acquired the skills of seeing an idea and investing in it in order to gain and benefit those who what I serve. As an entrepreneur, I have acquired the skill and knowledge of examining needs, wants and problems to see how I can bring solutions or improve how they are solved in the existing ways (Hamm, 2002). I have the skill off narrowing all the possible opportunities into one specific opportunity which carries more weight or is more probable to bring profits. I am innovative and come up with creative ideas to solutions of needs of people, and
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Business Plan - Essay Example The company intends to incorporate information technology into the marketing strategies adopted by companies to gain a competitive advantage. To offer marketing services through clear-cut information systems. To be an effective information technology company that offers operational management services in relation to marketing processes. The company will strive to create a broad consumer base by improving the marketing strategies adopted by companies. The primary reason for writing this business plan is to convince our prospective clients to utilize the operational management services offered by the company. The company plans to provide information technology services to companies to improve the marketing strategies adopted. The company is concerned with formulating ways to improve productivity through effective marketing strategies. The first part of the business plan is the company description. The business plan contains an in-depth analysis of the company to explain that it is a reliable information technology company. The products and services provided by the company are also outlined in the business plan. This section describes the benefits of the services offered by the company to its clients. The business plan is concluded by an overview of the operations and management functions of the company. The business plan does not include an appendix, market analysis, or financial analysis. The reason for such omissions is attributable to the fact that the company is still new. It has not been in existence for a significant amount of time to establish the market and financial performance. However, the service description and operations and management segment provide all the relevant information about the company and the set objectives. Techmark is a limited liability corporation that focuses on providing operational management services in relation to marketing.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The Use of the Internet as a Social Activity and Self-expression - Essay Example ss the statement: Ã¢â¬Å"the internet has presented individuals with real possibilities for self-expression, conversation and creative work.Ã¢â¬ To appreciate its relevance, a brief history of the origins of the Internet would initially be discussed. Other various uses of the Internet, aside from the focal points, would also be presented. What is exciting in this technological development is that it has not stopped evolving and there is still a vast future ahead. A lot of stakeholders have the desire to continue their quest to discover new applications and uses which would define the future of the Internet. However, the consequences of information overload and accessibility to data have tremendous effects on the traditional concepts of culture. Our way of life, due to the technology provided by the Internet, will never be the same. written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962. According to Leiner, et.al. (2003), the history of the Internet revolves around four distinct aspects: the technological aspect, operational and management aspect, social aspect, and commercialization aspect. The emergence of new media technologies such as the cable, satellite and the Internet has a tremendous impact on the traditional forms of mass media. In a book on Media and Cultural Theory, Freedman wrote that Ã¢â¬Å"a combination of technological innovations (concerning digitization) and cultural shifts (towards a more individualistic consumer society) appear to have handed new media technologies a competitive advantage over their predecessorsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Internet TransformationsÃ¢â¬ , 275). With more and more people utilizing the Internet for various purposes, there had been significant declines in primetime viewing of broadcast networks and circulations in magazines and broadsheets. The Internet boasts of a variety of uses for a wide range of clientele. From among the famous users of the Internet, our teenagers of today are seen to be the primary consumers of the Internet. A study
Monday, August 26, 2019
Maintaining safe classrooms and schools - Essay Example They further declared that the best way to deal with the issue is to look at the broader spectrum of the matter and involved the whole community namely: faith-based groups, law enforcers, businesses, parents, students and school personnel in finding solutions (Pollack & Sundermann 2001). According to safe school coalition, bullying is an act of aggression, in form of physical attack, verbal and psychological behavior that is repeatedly and constantly done with the intent of harming an individual. It can be described as power display (Hafner 2003). In the year 2003 the state of California has made progress in addressing school bullying and violence by drafting a Bill called Ã¢â¬Å"Bullying Prevention for School Safety and Crime Reduction Act of 2003Ã¢â¬ . It has passed the Assembly and the Senate and finally was approved by the Governor in October of that same year (http://www.bullypolice.org/ca_law.html). It is defined in Article: 3 School Safety Cadre. Here is the summary of the article: It will be established within the whole state, a cadre that would ensure collaboration of all agencies to combat and end school bullying. Its aim is to improve school attendance and to promote good citizenry. It will employ 100 professionals from the education bureau, community-based groups, and law enforcement group. This joint venture will be responsible for training staff, equipping representatives to make them qualified to initiate school safety programs in all districts, youth agencies, county education offices and law enforcement in each region (http://www.bullypolice.org/ca_law.html). Maintaining school safety is responsibility of the whole community. Policies are clearly outlined to be followed and implemented at schools and community. Contrary to the notion that our children are no longer safe in schools, according to U.S. Department of Education and U.S.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Discussion of the theories on Optimal Capital Structure - Essay Example The study by Modigliani and Miller was based on the following assumptions: 1. There are no brokerage costs. 2. There are no taxes. 3. There are no bankruptcy costs. 4. Investors can borrow at the same rate as corporations. 5. All investors have the same information as management about the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s future investment opportunities. 6. EBIT is not affected by the use of debt. This theory says that if these assumptions hold true, the value of the firm is not affected by the capital structure. This situation is expressed as follows: VL = VU = SL + D. Here VL is the value of a levered firm, VU is the value of an identical, unlevered firm, SL is the value of the levered firmÃ¢â¬â¢s stock and D is the value of its debt. As we know that WACC is a combination of cost of debt and cost of equity. The cost of debt is lower than the cost of equity. As a company raises capital through debt, the weight of debt increases and hence, it drives up the cost of equity as equity gets riskier. According to the assumptions by Modigliani and Miller, the cost of equity increases by an amount to keep the WACC constant. In other words, under these assumptions it does not matter whether the firm uses debt or equity to raise capital. So, capital structure decisions are irrelevant in such conditions. Modigliani and Miller: The Effect of Corporate Taxes In 1963, Modigliani and Miller relaxed the assumption that there are no corporate taxes. The corporate tax laws favour debt financing over equity financing because the tax laws allow companies to deduct interest payments as expense and on the other hand dividends are not deductible. So this treatment encourages debt financing. Interest payments reduce the amount the firm pay s to the government in the form of taxes and more of its cash is available for its investors. Hence, tax deductibility of the interest payments acts as a shield for the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s income before tax. Modigliani and Miller presented this concept as follows: VL = VU + Value of side effects = VU + PV of tax shield. They further simplified the concept as: VL = VU + TD. Here T is the corporate tax rate and D is the amount of debt. This relationship is expressed in the graph below. If the corporate tax rate is 40%, then this formula implies that every dollar of debt will increase the value of the firm by 40 cents. Hence, the optimal capital structure is 100% debt. Under this theory, the cost of equity increases as the amount of debt increases but it does not increase as fast as it does under the assumption that there are no taxes. As a result, under this theory the WACC falls as the amount of debt increases. This relationship is shown in the following graph. Miller: The Effect of corpor ate and personal taxes Later Miller brought in the aspect of personal taxes in this model. He said that income from the bonds is considered as interest which is taxed as personal income at a particular rate (Td). On the other hand, income from stocks comes in the form of dividends and capital gains. The tax on long-term capital gains is deferred until the stock is sold and the gain is realized. Of the stock is held until the owner dies no capital gains tax is paid. So he concluded that the returns on stock are taxed at a lower effective tax rate (Ts) than returns on debt. Looking gat this, Miller argued
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Epidemiology Exercise - Essay Example In addition to this, the length of tuberculosis incubation differs from individual to individual depending on the personÃ¢â¬â¢s risk factors. However, within six weeks of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an infected individual develops early stages of TB in the lungs that have no symptoms (CDC, 2014). Symptoms and signs of TB depend on the part of the body infected by the bacteria. Primary infection of TB may resolve on its own as individuals develop immunity between 6-10 weeks after infection (CDC, 2014). In case the immunity is weak, TB may progress and stretch all over the lungs or other organs. Such patients may develop signs and symptoms like; weight loss, fever, fatigue, cough and loss of appetite (CDC, 2014). Symptoms and signs for TB in the lungs include coughing for almost a month, coughing of blood, painful breathing, chest pain and pain when coughing (CDC, 2014). Occurrence of extra signs depends on where TB is developing (CDC, 2014). For instance, if TB develops in the lymph nodes, the patient may have swollen glands on the neck and under the arms. In case it affects the joints and bones, the patient develops swellings and pains around hips and knees. Lastly, Genitourinary TB results into pain in the flank as well as frequent urination accompanied with pain plus blood in the urine (CDC, 2014). Tuberculin skin test is done by injecting a fluid in skin under the lower fraction of the arm. After about two days, the part injected with the fluid is examined (CDC, 2014). A hard, raised swelling indicates the presence of TB. Blood test for TB is done to determine how immune system reacts to the presence of TB causing bacterium (CDC, 2014). Patients with latent TB infection have the TB bacteria but cannot infect others or show signs of the disease. The bacterium is inactive form and if not cured, it may result in TB. Medications used for diagnosis of latent TB include rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and rifapentine (RPT) (CDC, 2014). TB can be
Friday, August 23, 2019
Cuban Legal System - Essay Example military occupation. CubaÃ¢â¬â¢s long and often strained association with the U.S. and a series of U.S. backed governments would lead to the 1959 Cuban Revolution and the current 50-year reign of dictator, Fidel Castro. The web article, Crime and Society: A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World summarizes the Cuban legal system as a composite of the three major stages of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s history, ending in what we know today as a socialist legal state. In 1973, the government promulgated the Law of Judicial Organization, establishing a hierarchical and more formal court system, replacing private law practice with law collectives-- strengthening emphasis on "socialist legality. CubaÃ¢â¬â¢s civil law emphasizes written codes rather than precedent as the source of law. It utilizes an inquisitorial system of criminal procedure similar to that of Spain and France, with a smattering of Anglo American law including habeas corpus and a separation of courts and prosecutors quite uncharacteristic of Marxist-Leninist states. The article also sites key elements of Cubas "socialist legality" as an emphasis on substantive rather than juridical measures of justice; the use of law as a pro-active tool fo r socialist development; limited use of formal legal mechanisms for the resolution of private disputes; the use of informal "social courts" to resolve conflicts such as housing and labor disputes; direct citizen involvement in the judicial and crime control, and a system of state-organized law collectives to provide low-cost legal services nationwide. Regarding the latter, Raymond J. Michalowski writes of the non-adversarial system,Ã¢â¬Å"These attorneys, as intermediaries between citizens and the state, often found ways to utilize the formal framework of substantive and procedural laws to represent clients interests despite an official ideology that emphasized non-adversarial lawyering.Ã¢â¬ (Raymond J.
Meeting stakeholder and quality needs - Research Paper Example All these people play different roles and have different expectations. The managers make decisions, plan, organise and control the operations of the organisation and are accountable to the shareholders or the owners. The employees or staffs such as the pharmacists offer their skilled services to the patients for a salary or an agreed wage. Such services improve quality care and enhance patient safety and as such serve as a touch point for healthcare information for the hospitals as well as the patients. The patients on the other hand are among the key stakeholders for hospitals as they seek medical services expecting quality and affordable treatment. If the hospitals fail to meet the expectations of the patients, they are bound to fail. Other stakeholders include the suppliers who deliver products to hospitals as well as the community members who make up the largest percentage of the patients as well as the government who effect policies, rules and legislations which protect all the stakeholders (Heidi et al 20). Communication is vital in keeping the stakeholders satisfied. Always engage with the stakeholders to understand their concerns and the best way to address them. Communication breakdown may cause frustration and as such the stakeholders may lose their confidence in the organisation. Proper communication ensures that the stakeholders feel valued and that their interests are being looked out for. The primary goal of successful communications approach is to manage and eliminate surprises. It is advisable to manage the information stakeholders get, as well as their perception and communicate the feedback expected to deliver in the organisation. As such, a communications planning matrix will take stakeholders analysis and identify each stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s roles, what needs to be communicated and the expected feedback (Heidi et al 29). Setting up regular meetings is of essence
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Planning and Enabling Learning Essay In this assignment I am going to explain my approach to the research I have carried out and summarise my findings. To plan and enable learning, as a trainer I must ensure that my training is student centred and inclusive to all. There are many theories and suggestions to consider how this should be done in an adult learning environment. In order to enhance my current knowledge I decided to use reference books, publications, journals and websites to research relevant topics. I also utilised my mentor as a sounding board for ideas and a point of discussion for areas I was unsure about. I reflected on my existing knowledge and my research for Unit One Ã¢â¬â Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector. I wanted to access new models and theories and link these into the context of my own teaching practice. To do this I searched the internet for reviews of reference material for planning and enabling learning, which I then purchased. I found that my research could be extensive. I had to remain focused and choose topics to explore that I found interesting and relevant to my learning environment and style of delivery. Adult learners need to take responsibility for their own learning. If learners are active in setting their own targets and understand what they need to achieve, motivation and self esteem will reassure their learning experience. Understanding methods of negotiation and inclusivity provides learners with the most appropriate experience, engages the whole group and builds a good rapport. This can be gleaned from the identification of needs as per Ecclestone (1996). I focused my research on the impact of initial assessment on the learning journey. From my experience initial assessment results are not used effectively and the process of initial assessment is usually carried out purely to comply with procedure. My experiences are confirmed by The Chief InspectorÃ¢â¬â¢s Report (2003). The Adult Learning Inspectorate found that Ã¢â¬Ëmany providers are using a screening test but not following this upÃ¢â¬ ¦. the results of the assessment are not being used to inform the ILPÃ¢â¬â¢ (Wilson, L, 2008, p.139). Initial assessment can have a huge impact on delivery of learning and can form the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, goals and highlight areas of support required. Scales (2008, p.178) states that initial assessment Ã¢â¬Ëshould be handled sensitively to welcome learners in rather than scare with formal testing and assessment proceduresÃ¢â¬â¢. I agree with this, however, the nature of the assessment will depend on the level and content of the course commenced. Some programmes require a robust assessment process to set parameters and determine suitability to join the course. Wallace (2007, p.154) describes the three key components that come together at the beginning of a programme Ã¢â¬â the teacher, the learners and the syllabus or specifications of the course. This makes complete sense. To deliver an effective programme and meet the learning outcomes the key elements must come together and crystallise. This will then inform the delivery of the overall programme. This led me to further explore my research around inclusive learning. I chose to continue down the route of motivation and the impact this has on learners. Petty (2009, p.55) noted that Ã¢â¬ËMaslow showed that there is only one way of motivating your students. And that is to ensure that your studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ belongingness, esteem and self-actualisation needs are nourished through the learning activities you deviseÃ¢â¬â¢. Using information from the initial assessment, such as learning needs or styles, resources need to be created and adapted to ensure learning is effective and relevant. Functional skills should be tested and developed when appropriate. In my research I focused on the practicalities of embedding these skills and reports published relating to post 16 education. In the training I deliver I can embed a variety of functional skills to allow individuals to maintain these skills and develop them further. Wilson (2008) suggested that incorporating ICT into teaching doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always suit the teacher and/or learner. This can be the case with the types of sessions I deliver. Functional skills should naturally develop from a session; they canÃ¢â¬â¢t be forced into a session if they are inappropriate. Communication is the thread throughout a learning experience that encourages learning and development between the trainer and the learner. It is my responsibility to recognise potential barriers and utilise strategies to overcome these. This is the route I took with my research. I came across theories such as the Communication Climate (Adler et al, 1998) and Emotional Intelligence (Goleman, 1995). Again, I found a real link to negotiating with and including learners. Goleman (1995) believed that Ã¢â¬Ëif emotions and feelings are not recognised and managed by teachers and learners, then effective learning cannot occurÃ¢â¬â¢. My research has broadened my knowledge and understanding to take forward into the classroom. The brief I have provided only really scratches the surface from the extensive reading I carried out; however I will have the opportunity to explore these further within this unit.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Going Green Eco Friendly Practises Politics Essay Going green has become a part of everyday speech. People converse with each other about their own eco-friendly practices, the media portrays new pro-environmental techniques, and the government is promoting going green as well. It seems that with the abundance of information about being eco-friendly, more people would participate. However, many people are reticent to joining the green revolution because of both cultural and psycho-social characteristics including; type of society they live in, location, race, socioeconomic group, gender, and age. In this essay, I will explore each of these factors and relate them to the bigger issues of pollution, global warming, and reduction of the ozone layer, as they affect a world that is far from being as green as it could be. These factors will also assist to provide a framework for a society that has the potential to develop eco-friendly habits. The technology for implementing environmentally sound practices is all around us. However, Ã ¿Ã ½the biggest challenge is not inventing new technology but persuading more people to adopt technology and practices that already existÃ ¿Ã ½ (Charles 804). Therefore, it could have been assumed that people did not engage in pro-environmental activities because of their ignorance; specifically, ignorance of the rewards, pleasures, and benefits of being eco-friendly. Some researchers suggest that one way to combat this is by forcing changes upon people. That way, they have no choice but to partake in pro-environmental activities. For example, In Juneau, Alaska, a transmission line for power was cut off and the civilians had to adjust their style of living to not waste the precious electricity they had left until the line was fixed. After the line was fixed, the eco-friendly practices the people had adopted did not disappear but were still used and consequently the city now saves electric al power every year (Charles 805). However, every city is not like Juneau, Alaska, and therefore people in other parts of the country may need to be motivated differently. Some researchers believe that incentives, mainly in the form of money, need to be produced in order to motivate the public. What motivates an individual according to Yeonshin Kim is what he calls Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, or PCE, which refers to Ã ¿Ã ½the extent to which individuals believe that their actions will make a difference in solving a problemÃ ¿Ã ½ (Ellen, Weiner, and Cobb-Walgren 1991). If an individual has the desire to get involved in pro-environmental action to benefit society, they are more likely to undertake that task rather than put it off. The desire to be green is developed over time and it is based on individualÃ ¿Ã ½s experiences. Different experiences vary based on the type of societal view that an individual inhabits. There are two basic types of societal views that impact eco-friendly initiatives; individualistic and collectivistic. Both Yeonshin Kim and Sejung M. Choi, authors of Ã ¿Ã ½Antecedents of Green Purchase Behavior: An Example of Collectivism, Environmental Concern, and PCE,Ã ¿Ã ½ as well as Gary Baverstock, an author who writes about sustainable energy at the national level, agree that eco-friendly activity is typically smaller in individualistic societies than in collectivistic societies. This is because individuals in individualistic societies, such as Canada and the United Kingdom, typically focus on themselves while other parts of the society focus on its own problems. Individualistic societies are also typically richer than average. Collectivistic societies, like many Latin American countries, on the other hand, combine the efforts of the individual with those of the community, the government, and the nation as a whole, and are typically on the poorer end of the spectrum. Ther efore all pro-environmental activities are directed at one goal either through education, self-interest, or mass movements. These positive actions are the result of a greater number of individuals that practice self efficacy in collectivistic societies. When individuals have confidence in what they do as well as confidence in that it will have a positive effect on others, it is easier to promote pro-environmental actions through them. Irene Tilikidou, author of Ã ¿Ã ½Types and Influential Factors of Consumers Non-Purchasing Ecological Behaviors,Ã ¿Ã ½ proposes that to encourage such action in collectivistic societies, the government and the community must educate the individual instead of the other way around. This way, people can learn the values of going green and then combine their efforts with others. Collectivistic and individualistic societies can be found all around the world and one key determinant of whether a society is collectivistic or individualistic is location. Location, therefore, also has a profound effect on the possibility for societies to adopt eco-friendly practices. The Tilikidou survey, which earlier discussed pro-government action to promote eco-friendly actions, was conducted in Greece. One of the key causes of pollution in Greece is caused by their well known traffic problems ( ). However, they are a collectivistic society in which people come to the aid of others in times of need. If the government directs its efforts at educating the populous on the benefits of public transit, it is possible for Greece to start working its way into its own green revolution. Tilikidou also describes how people must have a desire to change. If they are not inclined to become eco-friendly in the first place, it will be much more difficult for them to adopt such practices. Luck ily, Greece is a collectivistic country. In other words it can be assumed that more citizens will be inclined to attempt almost any pro-environmental practice that the community educates them on. Australia is another example of a country trying to educate its population on green practices. It is not completely clear as to whether Australia is a collectivistic or individualistic society. However, based on the article ,Ã ¿Ã ½A Case for Establishing a Nationally Based Program for Sustainable Energy and Water Use in the Built Environment: An Investigation Into: Establishing a Vibrant R, D Ã ¿Ã ½ D Collaborative Centre for Energy Efficient Lifestyles, Developmental Patterns, Building Technologies and Building Design Strategies,Ã ¿Ã ½ by Gary Baverstock, I assumed it was another example of a collectivistic country. I base this assumption on the fact that Baverstock writes about the new establishment called the Research Institute for Sustainable Energy, RISE, which promotes the education of citizens on pro-environmental behaviors through a holistic approach. A country whose universities are actively involved in educating the populous falls under the category of a collectivisti c society. This, however, does not mean that those who do not attend universities are left behind. The government, communities, and lower level schools are also a key factors in educating all parts of any country on eco-friendly developments. RISE promotes the development of a Cooperative Research Centre, or CRC, in which universities across the country will educate their students and the public on eco-friendly behaviors. RISE proposes that the Ã ¿Ã ½[CRC] needs to be a holistic entity, part of a learning system that includes the community, industry and governanceÃ ¿Ã ½ (Baverstock et al 160). However, Australia actually ranks among the top countries in the world for individualism. After seeing this, it makes sense that a program such as RISE be put into place. Among the other highly ranked individualistic countries overall are Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, all countries that are considered rich. Latin American countries typically are more collectivistic but generally poverty stricken. Poverty stricken areas in the United States are usually populated by minorities, which brings me to my next point of emphasis, race. It is generally concluded in the United States that higher educated people, specifically white males with high income, are more likely to take on eco-friendly initiatives. However, there is now research proving that high levels of pro-environmental action are being proposed by minority groups. In Eugene UyekiÃ ¿Ã ½s article, Ã ¿Ã ½Diffusion of pro-environment Attitudes,Ã ¿Ã ½ he claims that minority groups are more likely to be pro-environmental since they are constantly being exposed to the least desirable living areas in the world. These places are typically located near waste plants and i ndustry, which are very highly polluted areas. He then concludes that since they are exposed to so much pollution, they are more inclined to take action against it ( ). The highly educated, white male typically lives in the suburbs, a place where there is most likely no effluence of pollution, and therefore he does not see the full effects of pollution. If he cannot see the problematic effects that occur, then cannot have any desire to fix them. However, minority groups might be more inclined to take on pro-environmental behaviors, but they do not always have the resources to do so. The highly educated white populous can actually take on pro-environmental activities because they have the money and the resources to do so. Still, this does not mean that said action is taken. Irene Tilikidou, who has written many articles on recycling and pro-environmental behavior, used a survey to attempt to collect data on peopleÃ ¿Ã ½s own opinions of their recycling habits. Some conclusions she drew from the survey include that individuals with positive attitudes towards recycling are more likely to participate in it because they are either swayed by self motivation or they think it is their social responsibility, people who are already involved in the going green revolution are more likely to engage in other pro-environmental activities, and that all nations must recognize the benefit of motivation when it comes to consumer attitudes on going green. However the most important conclusion she drew was that highly educated people are more likely to engage in eco-friendly initiatives. This caught my attention not only because it is contradictory to my point that minority and poverty groups are more likely to engage in eco-friendly initiatives, but also that this was based off of conclusion drawn from a survey. Since surveys have a high potential to being exposed to bias, this survey is no different. The highly educated people who participated in the survey could have answered how they thought society expected them to answer rather than giving the true answer. This reiterates how people are sometimes only claiming to be eco-friendly when they are actually not doing much if anything to participate in pro-environmental activities. This shouldnÃ ¿Ã ½t be surprising in the least bit because most people in the present day have been informed of the environmental problems the world is struggling with since childhood. Many children would construct or design posters with pictures of either a sick earth, a slogan promoting pro-environmental behaviors, or anything along those lines. However, what did those children actually do to help the environment after creating these posters or what could they even do to take the actions they promoted? The answer is usually nothing and with Ã ¿Ã ½nothingÃ ¿Ã ½ could have come a mentality to promote action for or against something without the desire to take truly take action. In The Psychology of Environmental Problems, Deborah Du Nann Winter claims pro-environmental attitudes are more established in children and younger people because they are less likely to bring in family income so it is less complicated for them to vocalize their attitudes (Du Nann 61). Donna Lee King, in her book Doing Their Share to Save the Planet, describes exactly what children are doing to promote eco-friendly activities, but doing nothing about it, as well as why children are led to believe they must promote these activities. Children endorse pro-environmental behaviors mostly through their own illustrations of how to help the earth, what the future of the earth was doomed to become if no action was taken, and how they helped to keep the earth clean, but many had no method of carrying out their claims on a broader scale, no knowledge of the true effect of their claims, nor any inclination to fulfill their claims other than to broadcast them. Her logic for this is that children are led to believe they must advocate going green due through their schooling and the government, and are therefore filled with misinformation ( ). A key aspect of her research was the fact that she divided her observations into subgroups that include location, race, and gender. What she found was that, in the United States, the north was more pro-environmental than the south, girls are more pro-environmental than boys, and poor, black children are more pro-environmental than any other race or socio-economic group (King 67). The first result came as a slight surprise since the northern United States is typically thought of as individualistic and the southern states as collectivistic. My guess is that this is related to the civil war era when the northern states were all about small businesses and working alone to support their families while the south was focused around plantations and working together to support their family and friends. There is not much research to support this assumption however. The two basic conclusions that King drew in that minority groups are more pro-environmental than other socioeconomic groups and that women are more likely to promote going green than men did coincide with my previous research. The most important conclusion, nonetheless, is that support for going green is developed at an early age in the present day but taking steps to perform the actions necessary to complete what children are promoting is lacking. Much of this knowledge of environmental problems but lack of understanding what to do about it can be related to psychology, especially behavioral psychology, which focuses on how the environment plays a major role on how peopleÃ ¿Ã ½s behaviors develop (Du Nann 88). Behaviorism explains through operant conditioning how behaviors can be developed and modified. Operant conditioning involves taking a behavior and reinforcing it either positively or negatively. Positive reinforcement is used when a certain behavior is desired or should be constructive and can be conditioned through rewards for completing beneficial activities. Incentive recycling is an example of this, where the recycling company offers and incentive such as payment or rewards to those who participate in recycling. Negative actions are operations that need to be done away with through a process called negative punishment. This involves the removal of certain activities in order to promote the action of other activitie s. Some examples of this include the electric company making electric bills go up so people use learn to use electricity more sparingly, gas stations raising the prices of gasoline causing people to think of using alternative travel measures such as hybrid cars, car-pooling, or public transit ( ). It is through operant conditioning that we can educate the present and future generations on how to bring about positive change to the environmental problems surrounding us. Positive reinforcement should be applied to those who are actively participating in going green as well as those who are not so that everyone has an incentive to take pro-environmental action. Negative reinforcement should be applied to those who promote without taking action, such as giving them the resources they need in order to practice what they preach. According to Deborah Du Nann Winter, negative reinforcement should be carried out through three types of discriminative stimuli; prompts, information, and modeling (Du Nann Winter 97). Prompts are signals that communicate what actions are appropriate, including self-reminders to take out the recycle at the appropriate time (Du Nann Winter 97). Information refers to explaining procedures are providing examples of eco-friendly acts such as commercials promoting use of geothermal energy or riding a bicycle instead of driving a car. Modeling involves actions done in public that are then mimicked by others who saw the action take place. This can be as small as picking up a piece of litter in the park. Modeling in behaviorism relates largely to social psychology, the study of how society influences an individualÃ ¿Ã ½s decisions (Du Nann Winter 56). Society has always been a factor in manufacturing individualÃ ¿Ã ½s decisions. It influences career choices, relationships, and especially eco-friendly activities. Many pro-environmental decisions are made because sometime society causes people to feel uncomfortable in such a way that individuals believe they must get rid of that feeling, also known as cognitive dissonance (Du Nann Winter 57). The main way of doing this is by the individual doing what they think society will be most acceptable of. Take the example of the person who picks up a piece of litter in the park. Many of those who watched this person while they were picking up the litter will be influenced in some way. They will either mimic the action taking place at another point in time because they feel that society will accept them for it, or they feel that society will not scrutinize them if they do not do the same, and example of S.H. SchwartzÃ ¿Ã ½s norm activation theory in Rama Mohana R. TuragaÃ ¿Ã ½s article Ã ¿Ã ½Pro-environmental Behavior: Rational Choice Meets Moral Motivation.Ã ¿Ã ½ Norm activation theory is composed of two aspects, Ã ¿Ã ½awareness of consequencesÃ ¿Ã ½ and Ã ¿Ã ½ascription of responsibility.Ã ¿Ã ½ Awareness of consequences is described such as an individual must heed the consequences of their actions as it affects the welfare of others, such as not smoking in public, while ascription of responsibility is the drive that compels an individual to take on those actions, such as an incentive for recycling. Another example of cognitive dissonance at work is the survey conducted by Irene Tilikidou that was previously discussed. Those highly educated individuals who answered that they are very eco-friendly could have been acting under the influence of cognitive dissonance in order to stay humbled in the public e ye. The main factors that contribute to cognitive dissonance are social norms. A norm is Ã ¿Ã ½and implicit rule, an expectation about what kind of behavior is appropriate in a given situationÃ ¿Ã ½ (Du Nann Winter 67). Environmental social norms are typically positive, in which the public expects others to participate in activities that are environmentally sound. However, not all actions are based on social norms. According to Freudian theory, people act of instincts and unconscious drives. Yes these instincts are sometimes socially acceptable because they follow the social norm, but this is not always the case. Some peopleÃ ¿Ã ½s instincts allow them to act differently than society expects them to. These unconscious drives have no motive other than an inner force compelling individuals to act instinctively or give themselves untrue rationales for their actions. . For example, someone throws an item that could be recycled into the trash based on the untrue rationale that their one item is insignificant and will have no major consequence upon the earth. They however forget that many people think like this because we all have similar human instincts. This could mean that in one day, if half of the people in the United States threw away one item that could have been recycled, over 150,000 pieces of recycle would have been added to the huge garbage dumps each day. Garbage dumps are a one of the biggest problems in America today and it continues to be a global problem (Bacard 43). This is only one aspect of pollution as a whole which is an ever increasing commodity around the world as well. Pollution is further exponentially increased by deforestation to build industry, oil dumping by not only large corporations but individuals as well, and increased use of individual transit instead of public transit. People who operate landfills claim that people will throw away almost anything which in turn causes there to be increasing amounts of damage. This carelessness could be attributed to the fact that people in individualistic countries throw away items without considering the benefits another person might have from it. Collectivistic countries, typically poor countries, need to use all the resources they have and share what they donÃ ¿Ã ½t use to maintain a steady and beneficial way of life. Location also affects pollution. For example, if a perso n lives in the slums, they are constantly exposed to pollution in the streets, at their job, and possibly even at their home. This kind of an environment might allow a person to think they are following the social norms of their society when they contribute to this litter. Also, they might be so overwhelmed and over-exposed to this pollution that they begin to advocate against it. Each of these outcomes can be determined by whether the society they live in is individualistic or collectivistic, as well as whether the person is male or female.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Prioritization in Nursing TGP CASE STUDY 2 Q1. Prioritization is a vital skill in nursing profession. Management of patient loading depends on the sharpness of patients and relies on primacy environment. Brown Edwards said breathing, airway and circulation are very important to sustain life; each is precondition of the other and in that array. The work of ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s in a gush; if entire airway obstacle take place, It is impossible to breathe, as air does not go into the respiratory tract for ventilation, as a result; oxygen does not go into the lungs and transported to crucial organs and tissues. Furthermore, her ideology in prioritizing is to treat sensitive patients and present troubles over constant patients and possible problems. 1:- Phillip in bed 4 by way of a tracheotomy is the utmost main concern. Durbin said (, a tracheotomy is signify for patients with higher airway obstacle. while the tracheotomy tube is in position, this might cause frustration in the respiratory area instigate an enhancement in mucus creation. This leads to airway obstacle impose tracheal suctioning. Vigilant watch is necessary for patients with tracheotomy as this is openly occupied in airway patency and efficient inhalation .make sure a lucid and patent airway is as a result is primary, hypoxia arise if linger unprocessed. 2:- Colleen in Bed 5 has blood loss internally as this is indication of maelena and haematemesis, this may go ahead to hemorrhagic stun .This shock results from an failure of delivery of oxygen to tissues owed to the failure of blood volume in the vascular organism. To renovate blood volume, she was transfused through blood. on the contrary, this case is not honestly related to airway and inhalation although comparatively sort out underneath the circulatory module of the algorithm; hence still necessitate vital awareness following Phillip. 3:- In bed 6 Tony makes a diagnosis of type II diabetes through insulin plus dextrose combination should be focus. This kind of combination is developing to keep up normoglycemia, which is important for him as he is to have an endoscopy and kept nil by mouth. Notably, the patient is not presently belligerent of rigorous ache or in a hypoglycemic condition which is an instant life intimidating experience if untreated; therefore this patient must be monitored carefully; on the other hand, care can be tardy after Collen and Phillip. In bed 3 Max with constant mixture of pantoprazole as organization of sensitive GI blood loss resultant to peptic ulcer syndrome. He offered with haematemesis; though distressing, there is no sign of current blood loss, so Max requires caring monitoring relatively direct interference. Fifth one is Linda, an aged female with right higher quadrant abdominal ache which could be indicative of cholecystitis She is at present feverish which may be analytic of an contagious process. Even if an increase in temperature exists, there is no straight and instant hazard in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s airway and inhalation condition. Finally, in bed number 2 Jayne was suffered with jaundice resulting to a liver disorder is attended. Likewise,the patient has a significant past of hepatitis C virus disease that can be gain by use of infected needles among intravenous-drug users. There is no warning of instant hazard for this patient, prompting her to be the less in priority. . As develop by Heller, the brain is mainly affected after blood glucose level fall. While glucose level in the blood downs to 3.6 mmol/L, efficiency of mind diminishes, as evident by the patient reply to voice in the AVPU balance. Notably, essential organs not adequately supply with glucose can potentially lead to stun. As a compensatory method blood course is force to the vital organs, this in return restrictions blood flow in apparent tissues causing fresh clammy skin .comparatively, a hormone that reduce blood sugar is insulin; however, patients with type II diabetes may have lack of this hormone; as an effect, insulin therapy is set up. Sam is to go through an endoscopy require him to be kept nil by mouth; as an effect, this can cause a important drop in the blood glucose. In the case, SamÃ¢â¬â¢s blood sugar fall to 1.5 mmol/L which can lead to abduction and potentially coma? To argue against this, dextrose is used to sustain the blood sugar within constant levels. Infusion pumps are manage via a 50 mls needle driver. Actrapid insulin is included in a 50 mls bag of 0.9 NaCL. It is very important to check the blood sugar cautiously as this would be basis on correction of infusion rates. in addition actrapid insulin has an instant onset and can cause rigorous hypoglycemia Procedures to reverse hypoglycemia are as follows: A decrease in the insulin at the charted lowest rate. This is the instant action as this is the chief cause of hypoglycemia; this act prevents a further turn down in blood sugar stage . STAT dose of 25 mls of 50% dextrose, following 5 minutes a repeat BGL is done. The main purpose is to repair blood sugar within secure limits. Sam is planned for an endoscopy and kept nil by mouth. Hence, giving the prescription orally is held up. But in severe cases dextrose is given intravenously due to awareness condition of patient and for quicker absorption. Regular monitoring of BGL every 15-30 minutes until BGLÃ¢â¬â¢s are 6.6 mmol/L and beyond. Dextrose infusion might induce hyperglycemia. in addition, the insulin mixture is set at the lowest price, it is estimated that blood sugar will considerably raise. so, watchful BGL monitoring is compulsory to monitor efficiency of treatment Keep insulin infusion, as insulin manages ultimately will run out. Whole cessation of insulin may consequence to ketoacidosis. There is an impair usage of glucose as a variety of energy; the body make use of fat as a alternate which consequences to ketone formation. too much ketones can be a life threatening trouble due to intense acidosis. Reduce insulin infusion and stimulate the rapid reaction team if patient befall semi-comatose from hypoglycemia. As argue by Brown Edwards, hypoglycemia causes brain energy deficiency. A decrease in the insulin should reduce the probability of a further fall in glucose levels. Instant warning of RRT to intrude is crucial to check further corrosion of patient. Predominantly, harsh hypoglycemia is like to hypoxia, within minutes patients contain grave brain harm; therefore instant interference should be applied. It is the duty of Nurses to provide a safe and quality care. However, work in the ward can be very challenging; therefore, nurses must learn how to prioritize care. The fresh graduate nurse was incapable to document clarification and manage prescription in advance due. These actions are authentic apprehensions in the excellence of care give to patient as this can hurt patients; it is the job of the registered nurse to supply secure and appropriate supply of medications. Prioritization and allocation of care are necessary mechanism of cooperation in the nursing career; vigilant thought of the availability of assets and staff, their experience and work responsibilities. A nurse head overlook and administer the registered nurses. in addition, they offer update on condition of patients and assessment of care. CNS can offer maintain for new graduate registered nurses, in conditions of medication confirmation or specialist advices on exact nursing care., EENÃ¢â¬â¢s can also support in manage medication .AINÃ¢â¬â¢s are an vital part of the group. They can give basic nursing heed, support in activities of everyday living of patients and examination of vital signs. Allocation of work to additional member of the healthcare team is essential in completion of tasks. Fresh graduate nurses can also dialog with team leaders and the NUM in regards to issues in their responsibilities. During collaboration workload is common; as a result, this provides finest care and decrease burnout in the place of work Airway obstacle for a patient with tracheostomy is a main concern. The patient is coughing regularly and vehemently with blood stain sputum. This is a sign of extreme mucus accumulation and trauma in the airway. Obstruction from dry emission and mucus plugs, bleeding and irritation from the tube friction against the exterior lining of the respiratory tract are important issues of a patient with a tracheostomy Phillip is the uppermost main concern while airway barrier indicates a life threatening position; therefore a speedy reply should be started. Whereas waiting, the nurse should carry out a most important review to establish the acuteness of condition beside with appropriate clinical interference. Suctioning is very important for clients not capable to clear their airway efficiently. Saline is used an irrigation for solid emissions. It does not consider the secretions; however, it wet the airway, loosens mucus, and arouses an effective cough. Furthermore, supply oxygen 100% by means of bag valve mask or frankly in the tracheostomy. Hyperoxygenation of the patient is necessary as protracted suctioning can cause hypoxemia itself. Hypoxia lasting more than 4 minutes may possibly cause cardiopulmonary arrest and irreversible brain damage; therefore, enduring vital surveillance monitoring particularly oxygen saturation is necessary In bed 3 also has a critical distress but this can be delayed for the intervening time after the patient with an airway compromise is attended. In addition, pantoprazoleÃ¢â¬â¢s half-life is just about an hour. Basically, a few minutes postponement to the patient in bed 3 would not guide to a life frightening situation
Monday, August 19, 2019
I have studied poems of World War II. I found that the poems fell into two categories, Recruiting Poems and Reality Poems. World War II Poetry I have studied poems of World War II. I found that the poems fell into two categories, Recruiting Poems and Reality Poems. Recruiting poems were those which were written by poets who have never encountered war but were paid to convince the reader, usually in their twenties, to sign up with the army. Reality poems tragic and effective story of what war was really like. They were written after war by a person who has suffered the consequences of the battleground. Dulce Et Decorum Est, a reality poem written by Wilfred Owen describes the struggle of a group of people who have to fight through the extraordinary events of war day in day out. Wilfred Owen frequently uses highly emotive language throughout the poem for example "haunting", "limped" and "guttering, choking, drowning". These help the reader imagine the terrible pain the soldiers suffered. Owen uses rhetorical devices such as "you too could pace behind the wagon that we flung him in" The title, in English means It Is Sweet And Honourable To Die For Ones Country. Which at first suggests that the poem represents the army in a good way. However this is far from the truth. In a way I think that Owen was mocking the saying but I don't think he was mocking the army as a whole. Owen says "Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs" which means the soldiers are so tired that even when the flares go off behind them they don't have the energy to turn around to see them. He also says "Drunk with fatigue" which is saying that the soldiers are so tired that it is as though they are drunk. Owen says these to ethicise the tiredness of the soldiers. The pace changes in the second stanza. The soldiers are woken by a gas attack. This changes the mood that Owen has set in the opening stanza. The soldiers are now woken by the fact that their lives are in extreme danger and they now have to be fully aware of all their surroundings, which will be difficult because of their tiredness. "Dim through the misty panes and thick green light, as under a green sea, I saw him drowning" The green light is the view through the soldier's gas masks. This is a simile saying that the man is drowning in a green sea. But really he is drowning in a sea of toxic blood.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Party-List System of proportional representation is a relatively new addition to Philippine politics and specifically in the electoral system of the country. It was only introduced in 1987, by then, the new constitution and formalized by R.A. 7941 (The Party-list System Act) in 1995, to open the legislature to marginalized and underrepresented sectors or groups without a well-defined political constituencies but who could contribute to policy formulation beneficial to the nation. (R.A. 7941 1995, Sec. 2) Since then there had been various problems in implementing the statutory law and the principles of the constitutional provision on the party-list system. Rodriguez and Velasco (1998, 36-48) and Tangkia and Habaradas (2001) enumerated some of them: low voter turnout, COMELEC inefficiency in public information dissemination, and confusing instructions in explaining a new ballot structure. However, one of its longest standing issues is the seat allocation since R.A. 7941 does not provide a clear formula for translating votes into seats. (Rodriguez 2002, 25 and Rodriguez and Velasco 1998, 39) An allocation formula is one of the basic and most fundamental requisites of a party-list system. Yet ironically, the authors of the governing law seemed to have forgotten to include a clear allocation formula even though it was tackled during the deliberations of R.A. 7941Ã¢â¬â¢s origin bills. The effects of its absence were most evident during the 1998 and 2007 elections. In 1998, 14 party-list seats were already filled with finality using the Ã¢â¬Å"2-4-6 COMELEC formula.Ã¢â¬ The said formula apportioned a seat for every 2% a party garnered in the party-list votes. For example, APEC was given two seats with its 5.5% but ABA (second... .... 2007. Ã¢â¬Å"The Party-List System in the Philippines: Proportional Representation and Seat Allocation Errors.Ã¢â¬ Discussion Paper. QC: Center for People Empowerment in Governance/University of the Philippines. Republic Act 7941. 1995. Ã¢â¬Å"The Party-list System Act.Ã¢â¬ Rodriguez, Agustin Martin G. and Djorina Velasco. 1998. Democracy Rising? The Trials and Triumphs of the 1998 Party-List Elections. QC: Institute of Politics and Governance and Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Rodriguez, Agustin Martin G. 2002. The Winding Road to Representation: The Philippine Party-List Experience. Makati: Ateneo School of Government and Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Tangkia, Fritzie Palma and Ma.AraceliBascoHabaradas. 2001.Ã¢â¬Å"Party-List System: The Philippine Experience. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Philippines.http://www.library.fes.de/pdffiles/bueros/philippinen/50076.pdf. (November 27, 2011).
The Tech Museum of Innovation "An abiding curiosity and an insatiable desire to learn how and why things work are the hallmarks of innovation . . . Creativity is nurtured by being receptive and encouraging" (Hewlett, 1998, p. 8). The innovation of computers and technologies are being developed enormously in order to serve the needs of mankind. The more people around the world that are eager to learn how to use new computers and technologies, the more I am proud that I am one who lives in a place that many people call, "Silicon Valley: the heart of computers and technologies in the world." I live in San Jose, the capital of Silicon Valley (The City of San Jose, 1999, p. 1). San Jose is surrounded by a great number of hardware and software computer companies. There are a lot of job opportunities offered in this region. San Jose, thus, is called, the land of the Silicon Rush, which has replaced California's Gold Rush, which occurred fifty-two years ago (San Jose Convention & Visitors Bureau, 2000, p. 4). People aro und the world want to go to the land of the Silicon Rush such as businessmen, engineers, college students, and, of course, tourists. Considering tourists, if we look for tourist sites in San Jose, a tourist site that many people are recognized is The Tech Museum of Innovation. The Tech Museum is a museum of technology revolutions. It is a big mango-colored building located centrally in downtown San Jose, at the corner of Market Street and Park Avenue. Inside the Tech Museum, there are four theme galleries. The first gallery, Communication, global connections, is to experience how the Internet, television, and communication technology have brought the world together. The second gallery, Exploration, new frontiers, is to demonstrate an earthquake, investigate under the sea, and use imagination to take people to many different places. The third gallery, Innovation, Silicon Valley and beyond, is to allow visitors to become a Silicon Valley inventor by designing a roller coaster, microchip, and 3-D self-portrait. The fourth gallery, Life tech, the human machine, is to experience machines that keep humans alive and expl ore technologies which enhance human performance. Moreover, the Tech Museum provides an IMAX Dome Theater, the center for learning, Tech online, the national medal of technology, the center of the edge, and public art. Through this paper, I will articulate why I selected The Tech as the artifact of this study, what the mission of the Tech Museum I will explore is, what the sources I have collected are, which method will be employed, and how I will use this method.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Question No. 1Both AMEX and NASDAQ are stock exchanges that have evolved from the demands of the times. AMEX or the American Stock Exchange started out as a stock exchange in the streets, or in the curb to be more precise, dealing stocks of companies that are not important enough to be a member of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) (Psst, n.d., para. 6 and 7). NASDAQ or National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System, on the other hand, was born after the advent of the computer age, answering the call of technology-based companies for a stock exchange of their own. Because of this, NASDAQÃ¢â¬â¢s procedures differ from AMEX significantly ((Psst, n.d., para. 8 and 9).Another similarity between the two exchanges is their common competitor, the NYSE. The biggest companies are traded in the NYSE which accounts for its popularity. There are on-going plans to merge AMEX and NASDAQ in the quest of making a stock exchange that is more competitive with the ever popular NYSE (Psst, n.d., para. 12). The two exchanges can compliment each other because of the different ways by which they conduct their business. These differences will be discussed in the later part of this paper.AMEX and NASDAQ each cater to a specific type of company. NASDAQ is preferred by firms like Microsoft, Intel and Apple (Psst, n.d., para. 9). These companies are involved mainly in technology. They are more comfortable with the system used by NASDAQ since it is an exchange that uses computers in its operations. Since AMEX was created as an answer to companies who cannot get into the NYSE, AMEX listings include small and mid-cap companies, companies that are not qualified to join the NYSE. AMEX has an impressive listing of options and exchange traded trusts. AMEX Ã¢â¬Å"specializes in energy companies, start-ups and biotech firmsÃ¢â¬ (Investigator guide staff, n.d., para. 1).Question No. 2The differences between the operations of the two exchanges are many. AMEX operations i s similar to that of a traditional exchange. There is a floor where the buying and selling takes place. Buying and selling are done personally with buyers and sellers gesturing their offer and acceptance. The system is more personal, the buyers and sellers interacting face-to-face. In fact, AMEX started by trading in the curb only to move on to a building of its own with its own Ã¢â¬Å"floorÃ¢â¬ . NASDAQ uses electronics in its operations. NASDAQ does not have a trading floor where buyers and sellers meet to conduct trade. Buyers use telephones and computer terminals which contains the information on the securities being traded in real time.NASDAQ used to be considered as an Ã¢â¬Å"Over the Counter ExchangeÃ¢â¬ , but as the term evolve over the years, NASDAQ is no longer considered as such. Initially, Ã¢â¬Å"Over the Counter ExchangesÃ¢â¬ are those which conduct trading without Ã¢â¬Å"trading floorsÃ¢â¬ (Investigator guide staff, n.d., para. 3). Now, the term only refers t o exchanges that trade stocks that do not qualify in any of the major exchanges (Investigator guide staff, n.d., para. 3). Since NASDAQ is considered a major exchange, it is no longer considered an Ã¢â¬Å"Over the Counter ExchangeÃ¢â¬ . As stated above, the companies dealing in technology find the system of NASDAQ more efficient than that of AMEX.The system of NASDAQ, allows for a Ã¢â¬Å"spreadÃ¢â¬ which is kept by the buyer or stock broker as part of his profit. A spread is the difference between the selling price and buying price. Under NASDAQÃ¢â¬â¢s system, dealers and brokers are able to sell directly to the buyers through computers and are not required to disclose the amount with which sellers are willing to sell their securities. Dealers and stockbrokers can increase such cost provided there are buyers willing to buy the same, any difference is theirs to keep. Because the system is prone to abuse, the government has enacted regulations to govern trading done through thi s system. (Psst, n.d., para. 13 -16).Because of the difference with which the two exchanges conduct their operations, the companies registered under them are from different industries. As mentioned above, NASDAQ specializes in companies engaged in technology, such as Microsoft and CISCO. On the other hand, AMEX specializes in energy companies and biotech firms.Question No. 3The collapse of Worlcom, Inc. and the conviction of its Chief Executive led to many losses not just in the telecoms industry but also in other industries. The fiasco that was Worldcom led to the revival and enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Belson 2005).. This piece of legislation provided for very specific accounting and auditing guidelines and detailed corporate disclosure. While this legislations aims to protect investors from the creative and dubious accounting practices of some corporations, corporations find the law stifling (Belson 2005).Worldcom continued to exist after the fiasco, reverting to its former name MCI. While it used to be a huge corporation that gobbles up smaller telecoms on its path to dominance, it struggled to survive in a much diminished state. The bankruptcy of the company meant that many people lost their jobs, savings and retirement benefits. Many of those who had worked for the company for a long time found themselves starting over again.During its heyday, Worldcom tactics has forced AT&T and other telecom companies to drastically lower the costs of their services to be competitive (Belson 2005). AT&T needed to cut cost by reducing its work force. These events and several ill-timed investments led to the decline of the once mighty AT&T, a decline from which it never fully recovered.ReferenceBelson, K. January 18, 2005. WorldcomÃ¢â¬â¢s audacious failure and its toll on an industry. Retrieved October 11, 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/18/business/18ebbers.html?pagewanted=1.Investor guide staff. n.d.Ã Retrieved October 11, 2007 at http://ww w.investorguide.com/igu-article-423-investing-basics-amex-nasdaq-otc-and-other-exchanges.html.Pssssst wanna trade?. n.d. Retrieved October 11, 2007 at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/on2/money/amex.html.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Essentially, this will work by Campus COUtUre purchasing pieces from designers and other local and international retailers, and offering it as a rental service to our clientele. Campus Couture allows its members to search dresses by new arrivals, size, color, style, or price. We aim to offer rental services for women to attend date nights, cocktail parties, and formal events idyllically for the Western Community. Campus Couture, Inc. Was incorporated in 201 2 and is based in London, Ontario (Exhibit 1). 1. Goals and Objectives: The initial goal of Campus Couture is to present our aggregate research and analysis to generate confidence in our business model and its feasibility. Establish a Presence Within the Campus Community: Establish a consistent base of users that rely on Campus Couture's site for their semi-formal and formal wear Establish ourselves are the forerunners in designer wear for the targeted consumers Minimize Start-Up Costs: From an operations standpoint, we strive to minimize start-up costs and maximize our customer-base in the first fiscal year, while generating a constant stream of profit in later periods.Promote Website Traffic: By increasing awareness about Campus Couture, we aim to capture 15% of Westerns female population to become active members of Campus Couture, Inc. By the end of our first year of operations (Exhibit 2) Financial: Usually negative cash from operations is risky, however sometimes is necessary to get the business afloat. Breakable by the end of 2nd fiscal year. Personal Goals: $1 5,000 in drawings by the Second Fiscal Year End (2013-2014) Drawings for Campus COUtUre Board of Directors at 70% Of net income by 3rd fiscal year-end Work part-time; between 5-8 hours per week 1. Key Success Factors: Successful Market Penetration: Initial market penetration is vital for our business to prosper. As a consequence of our generally unfamiliar business concept, our marketing practices must be well-planned and innovative in order to win over our customer base. Due to the influence of word-of-mouth and social media activity amongst our target demographic, we believe that once this initial base is established, we can expect a steady increase in customer base moving forward.Trendiest and Affordability: Trendiest and affordability are key determinants of Campus Couture's success, as today's youth wants to maintain a fashionable image without the substantial expenditures associated with purchasing an outfit. Campus Couture aims to keep its product offerings current and updated adhering to the latest fashion trends. Furthermore, each rental will be a fraction of the retail cost of the dress, meaning that Campus Couture will be a practical alternative. Affordability is the keystone to our business model, and it is imperative that it is maintained.Our price model is based off of the number of times we expect each dress to be rented, thus increasing the customer base and the number of rentals. We can expect to increase inventory, while driving down rental rates in the future. 1. 4 Corporate Capabilities: Strengths: Campus Couture adheres to a unique business model and can take definitive strides to provide our members a vast selection of dresses that cater to our students and young professionals. Campus Couture has skilled personnel that are capable of handling the daily operations and logistics involved with running a rental service.They have unrivaled insight into our target market as we are Western students representing other Western students. The use of social media technology has provided Campus Couture direct access to the target market, making us trendsetters for the rising trend in economical pending habits in this post-recession era. Weaknesses: Campus Couture has limited funds, inventory and connections to the fashion industry. This makes our company more vulnerable to our competitors who possess extensive fashion expertise and large capital allowances for advertising.Our business also h as the unique task of having to overcome the negative stigma attached to renting apparel. As well, the business's success is heavily reliant on keeping up with the latest trends and appealing to the young female's fashion needs/style. A strong marketing campaign and commitment to Campus Couture's business objectives will hopefully overcome these weaknesses, as well as increase traffic to our website. Seasonality will also impact our feasibility since a large portion of our target market attends Western University but leave for the summer months. . External Analysis: 2. 1 political: As of January 201 2, students across Ontario have begun receiving $1 ,600 annually from the provincial government, as part of an initiative to lower to tuition rates. This helps alleviate the financial stresses for students and also puts more disposable income back into their pockets, thus proving that female students will have increased means to rent dresses and purchase other novelties. Transmutes' are popularizing among environmental groups. These are individuals who value non-ownership for environmental and ethical reasons.The rhetoric behind this lies in the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"the more people share, the fewer goods need to be produced -? and fewer resources will be used up. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, dress rentals definitely cater to those consumers who will only use something when they truly need it. 2. 2 Economic: Due to rising university tuition rates, Western students on average have less disposable income and therefore increased pressure to spend their money wisely. Statistics Canada reported in 2008 that Canadian females between 16 ND 1 9 had an average income of $7,100 whereas females between 20 and 24 earned $15,100.If a student in either age cohort had to cover living and post- secondary expenses, they would have little or no money left for other expenditures. According to Western Statistics, approximately 681 9 bursaries, accounting for roughly $1 5 million were given to studen ts requiring financial assistance. These statistics imply that many Western students are looking to economize and curb their spending habits in order to offset their debt from student loans. The population of females at Western is currently 13,990 females that have gig demand for fashionable dresses due to the ongoing social scene in London.The price of clothing has escalated in as many years due partially to increased commodity, labor, and shipping costs, as well as markups associated with name brands. Consequently, consumers are finding it increasingly difficult to appear fashion forward at a reasonable price. On average, Western undergraduate students attend 6 to 8 major events per semester. 1 Provided that we can offer our clientele high quality dresses at a reasonable price, we aspire to take advantage of this opportunity and create successful business model that aligns with the needs of price sensitive Western University female students. . 3 social: Online shopping has also re volutionized over the past decade. According to Statistics Canada, in 2007 about 8. 4 million Canadian individuals aged 16 years and older used the Internet to make almost $12. 8 billion in purchases. By 2010, 113. 8 million orders were made by 1 1 2 million Canadians with a value of $15. 3 billion. From 2007 to 2010, the percentage of online shoppers that used the Internet to purchase clothing, jewelry, and accessories rose from 29% to 36%.This positive correlation demonstrates an increasing trend of online consumers and an opportunity for Campus Couture to capture this market because a large age of these shoppers were females under the age of 30. Currently, 60% of Western students are female; this rising trend along with plans to for the University to admit larger first-year classes secures Campus Couture?s growing target audience. Overall, these conditions are very favorable for our company as there is clear evidence that our target market is steadily expanding, implying that Cam pus Couture will likely gain customers and increase profits over time. 2.Technological: Modern technological developments, like the Internet have increased the consumers access to information thus reducing time spent shopping and has made retail prices more competitive by shifting the power from suppliers to consumers. This transformation is forcing current businesses to review their current operations and marketing strategies to better accommodate consumer demands. Campus Couture believes that implementing modern information technology to target the budget-conscientious young female consumer and to fulfill their need for fashionable apparel can offer a competitive edge over our competitors. 3.Consumer Analysis: 3. 1 Market Research: In our survey (Exhibit 3, Exhibit), 63% of respondents were inclined to rent a dress while 32% indicated that the idea was not appealing to them. Many hesitated as they worried about cleanliness and unfamiliarity to the concept of dress rentals. Our res ults show that approximately 73% of respondents are either impartial, agree, or strongly agree to this concept. This indicates that if Campus Couture can successfully promote dress rentals as fashionable, economical, and sanitary to the masses, we will unleash potential for large sales volumes and high returns from this untapped market.In terms of pricing, 76% of females surveyed indicated that they would spend less than $1 00 and 55% would spend less than $70 on a dress for a special occasion, therefore implying that price is a determining factor for the typical consumer. Therefore, Campus Couture must rent out its dresses at competitive rates to appeal to a vast market In which some would prefer to purchase rather than rent. 3. 2 Target Market: Campus Couture targets young female students and professionals from the Western and London community, ages 1 8 to 25 years old, who are searching for fashionable higher-end formulae at affordable prices.Students are very social individuals, but they are also on a limited budget With pressure to dress well, they want to look great by wearing new dresses. Buying new dresses is extremely costly, which is why this demographic would be more inclined to rent. 4. Competitive Analysis: Although, there are no specific businesses that provide a similar service to either community, there are many direct and indirect competitors impeding on Campus Couture's growth potential. 4. 1 Direct: Forever XIX: With 480 locations and revenue grossing over $2. Billion, Forever XIX is extremely popular among teen and young adult females and caters to an array of different styles at great value. In terms of marketing and promotion, Forever XIX has truly capitalized with its e-commerce venture. With Forever XIX opening up at Nashville Place in March 2012, Campus Couture could foresee immense competition from this clothing retailer. Forever XIX has far greater financial means to purchase inventory and to market their product. They have the poten tial to capture a larger audience due to their variety of inventory and reasonable pricing.These factors could pose as a real threat to the success of Campus Couture. A drawback to their business model is that with lower pricing comes poorer quality. This brings out the traditional quantity versus quality debate, and Campus Couture would have to evaluate which is more important to the desired target market. Forever Xi's dresses lie in the same price range as renting from Campus COUtUre's designer ones, however online purchases incur corresponding shipping charges. SASS: SASS is a global fashion e-commerce website, located in the UK, which sells fashionable clothing and accessories internationally.With 7. 0 million registered users and 35,000 new products each season, SASS attracts a wide range of demographics, allowing the business to penetrate the global market. By offering free shipping worldwide, consumers are more likely to purchase, however there are a number of downfalls, Cana dian customers are required to pay both HAST and duties, increasing the overall cost to the consumer. This also makes international returns more difficult, as the consumer will have to pay freight for the item(s) to be returned, which could be costly.In addition, this may even hinder the company's potential for making sales, as skeptic consumers would be hesitant to order without previously seeing the quality of the clothing. The efficiency of the delivery service is essential to ensure that customers receive their products on time in order to maintain customer satisfaction. Campus Couture differs as we offer rentals for similar items, but with a limited inventory. Our inventory will focus on the needs of the London community, instead of the world market.With that said, we provide our Members the opportunity to have a personal fitting. In addition, Campus Couture will not have to bother with online payment security and delivery timings, as both will be handled in-store. And Ezra: Ou r market research relayed that H and Ezra were highly popular within our target market. Whereas, H has a flagship in London, Ezra, is only coated in Toronto. Many Western students are from the Toronto area and travel home frequently, thereby making Ezra a direct competitor. Both retailers have strong brand recognition and customer loyalty across Canada.H's business concept is to give the customer unbeatable value by offering style and quality at a reasonable price. Ezra in comparison, concentrates on quality, design, and rapid turnaround. H&M's dresses retail between $20 and $60 whereas Ezra retails its dresses for $80 based on current website pricing. One weakness both of these companies share is their lack of an online store, while Campus Couture provides its consumers with the ability to reserve dresses online and on your phone. Oftentimes, customers find an item online and by the time they get to the store, the size or color of dress may be sold out.Overall, retailers who transi tion their marketing strategy to reflect technological trends will be better equipped to handle the the needs Of the modern consumer. Boutiques along Richmond Row: Richmond Row is home to various local apparel retailers in downtown London. Regardless of our partnership with Elliot, a local boutique (Exhibit 5), they would still remain indirect competitors as similar items would be arrested to the same audience. Price is a huge factor as Elliot has sizeable profit margins for it sales, however with increased competition and lower prices for the similar goods may result in a price war. Ultimately, Campus Couture will be able to overcome this form of competition due to its offering of a fundamentally different service. 4. 2 Indirect: High-End Departmental Stores High-end department stores including Holt Renew, Anemia Marcus, and Nordstrom provide designer apparel at high costs. These department stores target an older and wealthier demographic than students, who can afford to ay high pr emiums for higher quality. While many of these high-end stores ship to Canada, the costs associated with shipping makes these pieces virtually impossible for the average student to afford.Online Flash Sales: Online Luxury Flash Sales websites such as Beyond the Rack, Net-a-Porter, and The Peacock Parade are an up-and-coming trend in today's technology- dependent world. Here, designers and retailers have their merchandise discounted between 50-70% of the original retail value. Sales are typically short (under 72 hours) and start at inconvenient times during the day. This sakes purchasing from these websites difficult and inconvenient for students with busy schedules. Flash sales have limited selection, so specific styles may not be available.Most of these websites have headquarters in the States, adding shipping costs to the original purchase price. 5. Four Up's 5. 1 Product: We offer a dress rental service in London Ontario, where consumers can browse our inventory online and reserv e dresses, then allowing them to come in before their event to try on the dress and pay for the rental. 5. 2 Placement: We chose to place our business in the North London borough because Of its rigidity to Western University and college population, who are looking for the latest trends and outfits to present themselves in.The area is known for student housing, and therefore is more convenient for them to walk to in comparison to either mall or the downtown core. We believe that being located in close proximity to campus is advantageous as there are no other clothing retailers in the area, unlike the competition we would have faced from retailers along Richmond Row or in Nashville. 5. 3 price: While finalizing our inventory, the costs associated were taken into account in order to set the rental fees.The rental price represents 30 to 35% of the original retail price, therefore we will be able to generate a return on our investment after three rentals. This value is reasonable enough that consumers would still be inclined to rent rather than purchase a dress from elsewhere. As a start-up, we did not want to take too big of a risk. Since the business concept is unfamiliar to a large portion of our demographic, high initial promotional costs are necessary to inform and penetrate the market. Afterwards, Campus Couture can rely on the social behavior of the demographic to steadily build our customer base in years to mom. . 4 Promotion: In order to reach out to our clientele, we aim to incorporate a pull strategy, using a variety of social media outlets, promotional events and incentives, and personal selling strategies in an attempt to build up consumer demand for high-end designer dress rentals. Promotional Campaign: Social Media (Exhibit 6) The 18 to 25 cohort represents the highest consumers of social networking and the Internet. Social media outlets including, Faceable has made girls more vigilant to keep up with fashion trends and to have an extensive wardrobe for every occasion.Nowadays, girls are self-conscious about rearing the same outfit repeatedly, fearful that someone might remember. Due to these societal pressures, females have resorted to online retail browsing and shopping for clothing and accessories. With Campus Couture on all major networking sites: Faceable, Twitter, and Pinsetters, we can inform our customers about the latest trends and what is new at Campus Couture, enabling our clientele to interact with us, and even see how other clients are wearing Campus Couture. This will positively influence our company's image, as one that cares about its clientÃ ¨le's needs before their special event.Mobile Application (Exhibit 7) Imagine Campus Couture, at your fingertips. Our mobile application can be downloaded onto your Blackberry, phone, or Android to see the latest in trends and new in-stock items, and book fittings. This will allow girls who wait until the eleventh hour to reserve a dress at any time. With that said, the mo bile application is expected to be of greatest utility to customers for those always on-the-go. It will also enhance accessibility to our catalogue and overall business, further inclining potential customers to use our service.Undoubtedly, the greatest asset we can gain by using the mobile application s ensuring Campus Couture's constant presence in customers' lives. Viral Youth Campaign With today's youth constantly viewing, posting, and sharing Youth videos all over the social media circuit, Campus Couture has the opportunity to be recognized quickly, without incurring the cost of airing pricey television commercials. By filming a video that highlights Campus Couture's brand power and competitive advantage, we can influence students to share the video.In turn, they will be personally selling Campus Couture to their social circles without even realizing that they are doing it. This will elevate inquiries, ND with proper sales training within the Campus Couture team, this will resul t in increased volumes of rentals, equating to higher gross revenue as well as a higher return on our initial investment. Print Advertising and Word of Mouth (Exhibit 8) Print advertising is a promising technique as it catches the attention of many students while walking around campus.With posters up in areas of high traffic, students will be able to familiarize themselves with Campus Couture. These advertisements will be concentrated in locations with the highest prevalence Of our target market in order to garner their attention. Launch Party: The executive of Campus Couture, Inc. Will be working closely with the George Boatswains, Resident DC of Cobra London to organize a launch party and Fashion Show on Friday September 14th, 2012. With upwards of 500 attendees, we hope to make our mark on the Western and London community by selling advance tickets to the event for $10.Advance ticket sales will be a key marketing strategy to spread word out about Campus Couture to all social circ les across the campus community. All revenues generated would be paid to Cobra London. The launch party will promote our business, while the Fashion Show will best exhibit Campus Couture's collection to the female demographic. This will be coordinated in part with Blackbirds Salon and Spas, who have donated their time and expertise into making this event a great success. Our team will be able to personally sell Campus Couture to our target market, while promoting to the masses. . Internal Analysis 6. 1 Operations: Operations will commence on September 1st, 2012 with promotions, leading up to our launch party on September 14th, inaugurating the business. In order to use the site, a customer must make an account (Exhibit 9). Members can search through different dresses by style, color, size, or price. In addition, the calendar widget displays the availability of each dress. This calendar will mark off the dates that the dress has been booked for, the size, and the event she will be we aring it to, allowing other customers to skim through dresses efficiently.This also ensures that no two people will be renting out the same dress for the same event. Once the customer has decided on a dress, they will book a fitting appointment, where Campus Couture will hold onto two sizes of any one dress for the customer, ensuring a proper fit. Once they have been fitted, the client will choose whether to proceed with the rental. Our storefront provides them access to browse through other dresses. If they choose another dress, we would ensure that it was not previously on hold for another customer and that it was clean and undamaged.