Saturday, December 28, 2019
The death penalty has been a debated topic since it began in 1700. The act of deliberately causing the death of another human being has been changed and modified overtime due to different attacks on the credibility of this type of punishment, specifically by Cesare Beccaria, an Italian jurist who is considered the founder of the modern abolishment movement in 1764. According to Procon.org, BeccarriaÃ¢â¬âa prominent European called for an end to the death penalty, and it remained the most influential attack on the death penalty. Due to the multiple moratoriums throughout the states in lieu of the death penalty have replaced it with life imprisonmentÃ¢â¬âwhich is more civil and logical. The disproportionate amount of racial bias, inadequateÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition to that in the past, 23 death penalty cases were overturned due to prosecutors illegally striking black jurors from juries, and nationally 98% of prosecutors are white (Love 2012). The statics allows e veryone to see that there can be an injustice in gaining justice. The right to access to an attorney and rightfully the allowance of the defendant to retain and secure a suitable defense team is a vital hallmark of the American Justice System per the Death Penalty CenterÃ¢â¬â¢s Death Penalty Representation. Most of the time the convicted cannot afford the proper defense team to represent their case which carries a sentence of death. It is essential that an offender have an experienced attorney who will fulfil his/her obligations of the client and the courtÃ¢â¬âwith that decreasing the number of innocent who are eventually convicted and sentenced to death. The number of the wrongfully convicted was more than one hundred and fifty from 1973-2011, slightly increasing from 2000-2011Ã¢â¬âaveraging three to five exonerations a year per procon.org. According to an article on CNN.com, Study: Black People More Likely To Be Wrongfully Convicted written by Tanzina Vega says that a bla ck defendant would be 22% more likely to have police misconduct that those of white defendants as well.Show MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNo Death Penalty Capital crime is something that is meant for people that are found guilty of committing a serious crime, such as murder, rape, or theft. These are offences that should not be taken lightly but by killing the offender, the government is carrying about the action that they are trying to prevent. Also, the wrong person may be sentenced to death. After this person is executed, there is obviously nothing that can be done for the terrible mistake to be reversed. The death penalty shouldRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?. The Death Penalty982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould the death penalty be abolished? The death penalty is a Ã¢â¬Å"term that applies to capital punishment and is the worst penalty given for committing a murder or an atrocious assault.Ã¢â¬ (Black s Law Dictionary). Death penalty has been a part of human society and is legally approved for centuries. The first established death penalty laws date as far back as the Eighteenth Century B.C. in the Code of King Hammaurabi of Babylon, which codified the death penalty for 25 different crimes. Death sentencesRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1925 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Abstract This paper explores five published articles that report on discussion on the very old and yet to answer question of whether the death penalty in the USA should be abolished? The articles, however, vary in their stand on death penalty. In all article it is very different on publisher stand. They discuss thing argument with their own way and vision of thinking. Adina Nicoleta (2011) has raised question for fair trial on the proceeding of the criminal cases. In other article Maestro MarcelloRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntro The death penalty gives humans in our legal system rights to decide who deserves to live, a power only God should possess. Capital Punishment takes away our rights as equals. From its origins, the death penalty has been an inhumane, costly, ineffective, and biased form of punishment that needs to be abolished granting everyone their right to live. History of the Death Penalty Down through history, the death penalty has been adapted to be justifiable in the eyes of the people. By alteringRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescriminals has been performed by nearly every society to date. The death penalty came to the Americas when European settlers brought the idea of capitol punishment from Britain. The ideology behind taking someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life for crimes they have committed is a simple one. If a person commits a hennas crime such as murder or rape, they shall receive the death penalty. In more recent times we now see many countries abolishing the death penalty. The trend suggests that the capitol punishment policies still implementedRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschanged since the 17th century, so why not the age old penalty of death? Capital punishment in the United States is a highly debated topic. Arguments that want to get rid of this method of punishment usually mention th e many problems that capital punishment is plagued with. The death penalty has many issues that cannot be resolved, and since these issues canÃ¢â¬â¢t be solved, the death penalty should be abolished. Ã¢â¬Å"The irrevocable nature of the death penalty renders it an unsustainable and indefensible remedyRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe death penalty is a very controversial topic in the United States. It is implemented for the purpose of providing safety to the community and bringing justice to victims and their families. The death penalty is legal in thirty-one states (Ã¢â¬Å"31 StatesÃ¢â¬ ), and there are over forty different types of federal capital crimes that are eligible for the death penalty. These include crimes such as treason and kidnapping that results in murder (Ã¢â¬Å"41 FederalÃ¢â¬ ). However, many argue whether the death penalty isRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEvery year, thousands of lives are legally taken under the death penalty. Why should we take more lives than the ones that have already been taken? The death penalty is the punishment of execution, carried out legally against an individual convicted of a capital crime. Its proponents argue that the death penalty deters other criminals who may intend to commit similar crimes in the future. However, there is little statistical evidence to support this claim. Also, execution eliminates the criminalRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesShould the death penalty be abolished? The death penalty, also known as capital punishment is a legal procedure in which a state executes a person for crimes he/she has committed. This punishment has been used by many states, and is normally used for serious crimes, especially murder. It is also used on crimes against the state such as treason, crimes against humanity, espionage, and violent crimes while other states use it as part of military justice. There are mixed reactions on capital punishmentRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages 6 Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished in the United States? Adalynne Francis CRJU 1000 Dr. Huss November 14, 14 Should capital punishment/ death penalty be abolished in the United States? Many feel that the death penalty is immoral and question whether the state and federal government deserve the right to kill those whom it has imprisoned. On the other hand, those opposed feel that by not acting upon the death penalty communities would plunge in anarchy and that by
Friday, December 20, 2019
From the moment that the parent learns the biological sex of the baby, even as early as the ultrasound, they begin the first step of making many steps towards the long journey of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization. Even as they consider what the child should be named, they decide whether it is a boy or a girl name and then they proceed with decisions such as what color the room should be painted in association with the biological sex of the child. Will the child be dressed in frilly pink dresses or in blue jeans with plaid shirts? Will the child gain more time with the father fishing or with the mother shopping? From the time the sex is determined, the journey is only just beginning on how the child will be associated with itÃ¢â¬â¢s biological sex. As time goes on, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s biological sex is typically further upheld by traditions, rituals and compliances to meet the social norms of sex, gender, and gender roles. The biological differences between male and female begin with the differences based on the chromosomes. A male has the chromosomes of XY and female and the girl is XX chromosomes. These differences in chromosomes set off a chain of directives that will affect how the physical makeup of the child will be carried out in terms of reproductive characteristics, hormone levels, and growth in the child. It does not however, determine intelligence levels, temperament, agility, or personality traits. Even though the biological, physical differences are clearly different, there areShow MoreRelatedBiological Sex And Gender Roles1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Biological sex refers to both genetic and anatomic. It is different from gender because there is assigned gender which is given to a child at birth and gender identity which is Ã¢â¬Å"a personÃ¢â¬â¢s internal sense of being male or femaleÃ¢â¬ (127). Additionally, there are gender roles which differ by culture and it presents how a person should behavior, the responsibilities a person should have, and their rights based on their sex. Cultural differences can be seen when comparing Arapesh of New Guinea and theRead MoreSex, Gender, And Gender1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPopular understanding reflects the view that sex refers to ones biological functions in comparison to gender, which is solely explained as a cultural impact in depicting ones identity. The conveying of these two concepts create implications in demonstrating the understanding of ones sex or gender as distinct elements, of personal characteristics and human traits. Sex and gender are two contrasting features constantly interrelating, in day-to-day lives. A concise narrowing will be drawn from thisRead MoreGender and Sex Essay963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen considering gender and sex, a laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of these terms might be very different than a sociologistÃ¢â¬â¢s. There is an important distinction: sex, in terms of being Ã¢â¬Å"maleÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â ¬Å"female,Ã¢â¬ is purely the physical biological characteristic differences Ã¢â¬â primarily anatomical differences. (There are also rare cases of Ã¢â¬Å"intersexualÃ¢â¬ individuals as outlined in the Navarro article, Ã¢â¬Å"When Gender IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t a GivenÃ¢â¬ .) Gender, on the other hand, is an often misconstrued concept that is commonly mistaken as synonymousRead MoreThe Topic Of Sexuality1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduce the topic of sexuality (para)- Horrocks (1997) points out in his book that sexuality encircles multiple aspects of human existence. Sexuality is then, not a uniform or simple phenomenon and is influenced by the interaction of psychological, biological, social, cultural factors and many more. Horrocks (1997), suggests that to try and understand or explain a definitive conclusion about sexuality seems impossible as sexuality has different meanings to so many groups of people. Introduce the perspectivesRead MoreGender Roles Of The House And Children And Men Supporting The Family954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbeginning of time the different roles of gender have been no secret, with women taking care of the house and children and men supporting the family. Though times have drastically changed over the years the roles of these two genders have remained the same for the most part. Even with women working and men helping around the house more it is still very clear what the role of ones gender should be. However why has it always been this way? Is it due to our biological make up or just because of the wayRead MoreGender Identity1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Identity Autumn Messina PSY/340 January 24, 2011 Melynda Marchi Gender Identity The development of our gender identity is influenced by both the biological nature of a person and society, but the biology is the foundation of our gender identity. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the interaction between hormones and behavior, and how these interactions affect the determination of gender identity, the roles of biological factors nature and environmentalRead MoreGender Development: Social or Biological1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn a variety of contexts, the word gender is used to describe the masculinity or femininity of words, persons, characteristics, or non-human organisms (Wikipedia, 2006). More specific to psychology, gender role is a term used to describe the normal behavior associated with a given gender status. Those that do not follow this customary role given to their particular gender are said to have an atypical gender role. A person who has normal male genitalia and identifies himself as a man will usuallyRead MoreEssay about Women and Men Are Made, Not Born987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof complex social processes. BeauvoirÃ¢â¬â¢s statement suggests that gender roles and behaviour are not inherent and that social positioning should not be determined by sex. This essay will begin by drawing a distinction between sex and gender, and will then discuss two arguments that explore the origins of gender difference; social construction theory as implied by BeauvoirÃ¢â¬â¢s statement, and the biological determinist position. Gender refers to the socially constructed categories of Ã¢â¬ËmasculineÃ¢â¬â¢ andRead MoreRelationship Between Sex And Gender Essay1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdistinction of gender from came from the move away from biological determinism and conservative antifeminist politics. The meaning of gender will continue to develop and will continue becoming more fluid with time. Introduction The sex and gender distinction is an idea that has been rethought as recently as the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, with input from academics such as Ann Oakley and John Money. In this essay I will be discussing how biological determinism assisted in the development of the term gender, and the distinctionRead MoreThe Current Day And Age Essay1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the current day and age, gender can be a very controversial topic. Back in the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, there were very clearly defined gender roles for males and females. It is no longer as simple as it once was to define gender. Factors such as sociocultural influence, the scientific difference between Ã¢â¬Å"genderÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sexÃ¢â¬ , and politics all play into gender roles and gender identity. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural idea of masculinity and femininity can also differ from other cultures making it a unique definition
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Discuss the ways strategic human resource management (SHRM) could contribute to organizational performance in the next five years. Strategic human resource management contributes to organizational performance. Resource Management is Ã¢â¬Å"the process of ensuring that resources are sufficient and efficient for a task. Resources may include anything a business or organization possesses that is used in the process of creating or maintaining business operations. Strategic Human Resource Management also known as and for the purpose of this essay SHRM is Ã¢â¬Å"designed to help companies best meet the needs of their employers while promoting company goals. This essay will discuss how Strategic human resource management contributes to organizational performance over the next five years how through these determining factors; Identifying major principles within SHRM, Internal and external factors and finally, the two factors above will result in identifying examples that HRM can face when implementing organizational performance over the next five years. Strategic Human Resource Management can contribute to organizational performance in the next 5 years through identifying the major principles within SHRM are of significance. SHRM imposes an intention and focus in finding the most appropriate ways of managing people to effectively acquire the organizations calculated strategy. For the purpose of this essay three major models, which represent the principles of SHRM, will be utilized. Firstly, the Ã¢â¬Ë5 P modelÃ¢â¬â¢ implies that philosophies, policies, programs, practices and processes within strategic business relies on and represents the managements overall outcomes when considering survival, development, flexibility and profitability (Schuler 1992). These practices all rely in a cascading effect on each other therefore they take time. Secondly, the Ã¢â¬Ëcompetitive strategy and role behaviors modelÃ¢â¬â¢ links strategy with behavior. Unlike and instruction manual humans social interaction is one that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be mechanical. Therefore for this particular model HRM practices are an applicable in achieving proposed strategies. 6 strategies are identified as planning, staffing, appraising, compensating, training and development (Schuler amp; Jackson 1987). Thirdly, the Ã¢â¬Ëtwo stage modelÃ¢â¬â¢ is fundamentally inherent on a model of strategic management. The model argues that the rating of performance is made at the time of the observation of performance. Ultimately, this only considers a small portion of reality and therefore the rating can be manipulated and should not have significance in total performance. Hence suggestions imply that another stage be apparent to demonstrate consistent observations of performance and be stored therefore ratings either side can then be better judged, hence the two stage model. (Development and Test of the Two-stage Model of Performance Appraisal Charmine E. J. Hartel Strategic Human Resource Management can contribute to organizational performance in the next 5 years through identifying the internal and external factors. EXTERNAL FACTORS External factors such as legislation are the backbone of how responsibility is defined in human resources. HR professionals must be as up to date as possible and legislation as laws can change and ultimately effect performance, in this case, over 5 years. From a managerial point of view, keeping employees up to date and abiding by laws is critical to performance. Additionally, these professionals must also consider and must be familiar with legalization operating in other countries, particularly when they are responsible for expatriates and employees, who are working overseas. The management of equal employment opportunity (EEO) is also considerable when contributing to organizational performance over 5 years. For example, if people identify that they are not being treated equal, from income to social injustice in the workplace this can alter the flow of a business. Further, people could leave their job and this lack of consistency can ltimate in undesirable organizational performance. However, when EEO is purposefully implied within an organization it can ensure employees are treated with fairness and respect and further, secure and retain the best people for jobs. Again, contributing to long-term organizational performance. Any change in external factors cans ultimate in the impact of the construction of HRM procedures. INTERNAL FACTORS Opposed to external factors, internal factors include the dynamics within an organization. For example and for the purpose of this essay, culture. Organizational culture has a significant effect on HRM and how it is strategized. Culture is embedded in human interaction. HR is able to build their practices around a culture within an organization by observation and implementation. Culture can include any factors such as how the organization runs, beliefs and ideologies and further how the organization likes to be seen and thought of. When considering organizational performance over 5 years, the culture can have a very persuading or non-persuading effect depending on the HRM. For example, the vitamin company Ã¢â¬ËBlackmoreÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬Ë implies a high performing happy culture with bonus based incentives to match, Further, as the reader suggests BlackmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s also promoted a scheme based on performance to result in a Christmas ham. These ideologies that BlackmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s demonstrate are effective ways of that SHRM can contribute to organizational factors over 5 years. Taking into consideration the two contributing factors above, when applying this to organizational performance over the next 5 years, the following examples can justify these factors. It is clear that incorporating human resource management strategies and systems to achieve the overall goal and success of a company while meeting the needs of its employees and stakeholders is what needs to be done, the question is what are the challenges that are going to come from this over the next five years when relating it to the organizational performance. A vital issue when talking about internal and external factors is collaboration of culture. Organizational culture influences HRM immensely. HRM practices, which have een stated above, are able to contribute to the building and maintenance of organizational performance if thought out and adjusted into both internal and external factors. A good example is Google. The HRMG Unit outline identifies that GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is team orientated, collaborative, encourages people to think and to work with integrity, all of this entails working for the benefit of the company and ultimately for the benefit of the world. Further, i ts fundamental elements, which comprise these things, are clear recognition by the founders in relation to the type of culture they wanted to build. The significance of recruiting employees into their company who suited their culture is known. The process of finding these employees is time consuming and a demanding process however it is these steps, which contribute to success. Finally there culture is fun. It allows for Ã¢â¬Ëfree thinkingÃ¢â¬â¢ and imagination, which helps to build what they are going for. It sustains a small organizational feel, with a consistent culture, which allows the challenges of their organizational performance to be decreased, and therefore their success increased. In Conclusion Strategic human resource management contributes to organizational performance. This essay has discussed how Strategic human resource management contributes to organizational performance over the next five years, how through these determining factors; Identifying major principles within SHRM, Internal and external factors and finally, the two factors which resulted identifying an example Ã¢â¬ËGoogleÃ¢â¬â¢, that HRM can face when implementing organizational performance over the next five years.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Explain, providing appropriate examples, why car manufacturers are constantly introducing new models. Answer: The demand for car is increasing day by day as people are using this vehicle to cover a long distance within a short time. Hence, in both developed and developing countries, people are demanding cars as a necessary commodity. The principle concept of this essay is to analyse the reason that why producers of car are constantly introducing new models. There are various reasons behind this. Manufacturers are making new cars with new technologies to meet those criteria, which consumers are demanding. Hence, in this context, concepts of benefit of the consumers, costs of producers and market structure of the car industry are some important aspects, which should be discussed in this essay. New models with new designs and technologies can attract consumers. This concept also helps a car manufacturer to compete with other competitors. The chief way to analyse this situation is to observe various models, which are introduced by different leading car manufacturers and basic economic concepts t hat support this view. After analysing these concepts, it will be seen that some models have sold with a huge demand, whereas, some models could not compete in the market. Hence, at the end of this essay, it will be discussed that what kind of updates are required in future. As technology is improving day by day, the car manufacturers can also incorporate these innovations in their model. There will be different charts and diagrams, which will reflect the trend of a car manufacturer in the market. Automobile industry is rapidly expanding their business in recent years. Different car manufacturing companies are introducing new models of cars to meet the raising demand of customers. Customers expectations on a car are chiefly based on the quality, safety, utility and reliability. Producers are trying to introduce new models based on those criteria. At the same time, producers can earn higher level of profits by selling new models of car with high prices. However, at the same time, overcapacity has created pressure on the auto industry to control the price of vehicle. Due to environmental concerns, the chief agenda of a manufacturer is to look after various matters, like, emissions of tailpipe, production of carbon dioxide and recycling. One of the growing issues is urban congestion all over the world that effectively decreases the usage of cars among different cities. These challenges lead the auto industry to innovate and introduce new models of cars. General Motors of U.S made different types of cars based on different demands of their consumers. The chief focus of a car producing company in U.S is to look after the speed, safety and comfort of consumers. Moreover, suspensions, interiors, stylish bodies and chassis of cars are also some important factors to introduce new models of cars. Car manufacturers have earned major importance in the automotive industry, worldwide. They have taken some primary responsibilities related to development of products, manufacturing and engineering because of some critical systems in the industry. The automotive manufacturing industry in Australia has faced various difficulties for which it needs to introduce new models of cars. The reason behind these difficulties is that, in Australia, motor vehicle producers are not able to survive in a highly competitive world market and domestic automotive markets. Some well known car manufacturing industries, like, Ford, Toyota and Holden have declared that before 2017, they will ce ase local productions. The chief reasons behind producing new models of cars are benefits, costs and market structures, within an automotive industry. In this context, some articles related to economics can be analysed. These will help readers to understand the economical reason behind producing new models of cars. According to an economics paper of Safiullin, Ismagilova, Gallyamova and Safiullin, consumer surplus is an important concept of benefit. According to Alfred Marshall, a consumer is ready to pay price for a commodity or service, when he or she gets benefits from it (Safiullin et al., 2013). In an economy, a consumer can pay higher prices for a commodity if he or she gets higher benefits from the product. However, the market price can be lower than that price, which the consumer wants to pay. Hence, the difference between these two prices is called consumer surplus (Xie Lin, 2017). In this car manufacturing industry, the consumer can pay higher prices if they get higher benefits from the new mode l of car. Fig1: Consumer Surplus Source: (created by author) In the above figure, the difference between P1 and P0 is the surplus of the consumer. Here, a consumer can purchase a car by paying P1 price, if he or she will get higher benefits from that car. However, the market price is P0, which will be paid by the consumer. Hence, under this situation, a consumer can also get benefit through surplus. Cost is another important factor, which greatly influence any production process. Under an automotive industry, manufacturers are very concern about their cost pattern. There are various in built steps to produce a car. Production cost refers those cost, which a manufacturing industry bears at the time of production of a good or service (Farahani, Rezapour, Drezner Fallah 2014). This cost includes wages of labours, prices of raw materials, land rent, interest of capital, advertisement costs and general overhead. Moreover, any taxes imposed by the government are also considered as production cost. Hence, production costs include all expenditures related to production or creation of goods and services. Producers experience product costs, which are related to both the materials that require for creating an item and labour to create it. In an automotive industry, the direct production costs are materials that is, plastic, tire, metal materials and so on. Hence, it can be seen that, ther e is a huge cost burden of a car manufacturer to produce a car. Hence, they also charge a huge price for each unit of car. This leads to increase the price of that durable commodity. Consumers do not want to buy old models or new cars with same features with high prices. However, consumers can purchase cars with high prices if the manufactures make new models of cars with new features. New models with high demand can decrease the burden of cost of a producer. In this regard, an important point is needed to be mentioned. The point is that, when the cost of car manufacturing increases, the selling cost may also increase at the same time. Australia is one of the few countries that can design and manufactures cars with significant volumes (Andersson, Sderman Sandn, 2017). The Automotive industry of Australia can be divided into two parts, which are interrelated with each other (Malihi Shee, 2017). These are the production sector and sales sector of cars and both of them are equally important for this car manufacturing industry of Australia. Manufacturing sector implies the market conditions under which the manufacturing business of Australia operates. It produces vehicles and other products that are related to those vehicles and the chief motive of this industry is to make profit. On the other side, sales sector implies a market situation under which various car manufacturing industries compete with each other to sale their cars. However, it is very important to differentiate between these two market conditions as these two markets operate within two different market structures, competitions and business strategies ( Pisano, 2017). The only market structure, which can describe the manufacturing sector of the automotive industry in Australia, is oligopoly (Hashmi Biesebroeck 2016). There are chiefly two companies who produce cars in Australia. These are Ford and Holden. Hence, the method of competition and strategies related to price are based on the oligopoly criteria. In an oligopolistic market, level of competitiveness and profitability are highly correlated with each other. On the other hand, the selling sector of automotive industry is based on the market structure of monopolistic competition (Harrison, Rutherford Tarr 2014). All car manufacturing industries are based on product differentiation by making different models of cars. Hence, they try to sale their cars by using different technologies. Toyota Motor Corporation is a multinational automobile manufacturing company of Japan. It is one of the leading car manufacturing companies all over the world. The company has launched various models of cars since the beginning of their business. Some of the best selling models of Toyota since 2016 are Toyota Camera, Toyota Corolla, Toyota RAV4, Toyota Tacoma and Toyota Highlander. Fig2: Toyota Models Selling Amount in 2016 Source: ("TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE", 2017) In 2016, Toyota has dominated the car market of Australia. Three models of this company were included among the top five bestselling car companies in this country. Fig3: Sales Volume of Small cars in Australia in July 2016 Source: (Malihi Shee, 2017) The automotive industry of any country is vast and dynamic by its nature. Developing countries chiefly depend on their domestic automotive industries for the opportunity of economic growth as it has important linkages with other industries. The industry has gone through several stages. These are craft production, mass production and lean production. Under those stages, some small enterprises as well as large industries establish some standard products and business strategies. Ford and Toyota started a new line of production and design of cars. Under car production, mechanisation has been transformed since past century that was led by the fastest speed with lower costs. The mass production system of Ford lied on standard designs with fully automated and interchangeable auto parts. On the other hand, the lean production system of Toyota led productivity to a new dimension by introducing pull system instead of push system. That means, instead of producing huge amount of vehicles and pus hing them towards the dealer for selling, they started producing their cars based on consumers immediate demand. Product innovation or introducing of new models in the automotive industry has chiefly based on the demands of customers (Damert Baumgartner, 2017). However, product positioning is a vital strategic variable for any car manufacturer. General Motors started producing different types of vehicles for different product segments. It ended the market of Ford with low price model. The ability of product variation on different dimensions is the chief strategic variable of any automotive car industries. However, the chiefly responsibility of automotive industry in U.S.A is to make cars based on customers satisfaction (Eilert, Jayachandran, Kalaignanam Swartz, 2017). On the other hand, the automotive industry of Europe has focused on their chief attentions on performance and ability to move easily and quickly of their vehicles. These are radial tires with steel-belted, fuel injection, disc brakes and turbo diesel engines. In Japan, the automotive producers are trying to produce different typ es of cars because of their miniaturisation culture, scarcity of materials, fuels and space. Industrial innovations have taken place over the last few centuries. The manufacturers of car industry incorporated some critical components of production to minimise transaction costs related to late deliveries and products, which are not produced with exact specifications. Under the automotive industry, market rivalry is based on two strategic variables. These are quality and product variety on the one hand and transaction price to increase sales, on the other hand. Maintaining high level of customers repurchase rates is important for an industry to earn high profit. Hence, the car makers try to attract and keep their customers with them by innovating new features of cars. Therefore, product variation is the major important concern of all small and large size car industries. However, some auto makers are well known in a particular market segment, for example, Mercedes, BMW and so on. The hallmark that Japan makes in their car is reliability on turnkey. On the other hand, Ford, Toyota and Chevrolet have launched small and sporty cars for their buyers. Analysts of automotive industries argue that major geographical and organisational changes influence this industry to innovate new technologies and reconfigurations on the basis of demand, based on environmental concern (Wagner, Ortman Maxfield, 2016). Each car manufacturing company tries to capture the international market by selling their cars worldwide. Hence, they are trying to innovate new models that can be suitable for all countries. In conclusion, it can be said that car manufacturing industry is one of the largest industry and it can deeply influence the economic system of a country. The chief motto of a car manufacturing industry is to produce different types of cars with different facilities that can influence their customers positively and they can earn huge amount of profits. Demands of customers are the first priority for those industries. Hence they always try to innovate new models of cars with new technologies that can satisfy a consumer. Safety, comfort, stylish body are some basic features that each consumer needs. They can get consumer surplus if new model are introduced in the market with large number of features. Then, they can buy it with a higher price. At the same time, producers are trying to reduce their cost structure. New technologies, substitute materials with lower prices can reduce the cost burden of a car manufacturing company. On the other hand, market structure is also an important con cept which should be kept in mind. Different countries have different market strategies for automotive industry. The automotive industry operates their functions chiefly under a monopolistic competitive market. Hence, product differentiation is a very important concept. They can differentiate their products if they launce new models with different new technologies. Therefore, it can be seen that introducing new models of cars is very important for each car manufactures compete and stay within this industry. References: Andersson, M., Sderman, M. L., Sandn, B. A. (2017). Are scarce metals in cars functionally recycled?.Waste Management,60, 407-416. Damert, M., Baumgartner, R. J. (2017). Intra?Sectoral Differences in Climate Change Strategies: Evidence from the Global Automotive Industry.Business Strategy and the Environment. Eilert, M., Jayachandran, S., Kalaignanam, K., Swartz, T. A. (2017). Does It Pay to Recall Your Product Early? An Empirical Investigation in the Automobile Industry.Journal of Marketing,81(3), 111-129. Farahani, R. Z., Rezapour, S., Drezner, T., Fallah, S. (2014). Competitive supply chain network design: An overview of classifications, models, solution techniques and applications.Omega,45, 92-118. Harrison, G. W., Rutherford, T. F., Tarr, D. G. (2014). Increased competition and completion of the market in the European Union: static and steady state effects. InAPPLIED TRADE POLICY MODELING IN 16 COUNTRIES: Insights and Impacts from World Bank CGE Based Projects(pp. 361-394). Hashmi, A. R., Biesebroeck, J. V. (2016). The relationship between market structure and innovation in industry equilibrium: a case study of the global automobile industry.Review of Economics and Statistics,98(1), 192-208. Malihi, K., Shee, H. (2017). STRATEGIC VEHICLES IMPORT SUPPLY CHAIN: A PARADIGM SHIFT IN AUSTRALIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY.Asian Academy of Management Journal,22(1). Pisano, G. P. (2017). Toward a prescriptive theory of dynamic capabilities: connecting strategic choice, learning, and competition.Industrial and Corporate Change,26(5), 747-762. Safiullin, L. N., Ismagilova, G. N., Gallyamova, D., Safiullin, N. Z. (2013). Consumer benefit in the competitive market.Procedia Economics and Finance,5, 667-676. TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE. (2017).TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE. Retrieved 16 December 2017, from https://www.toyota-global.com/ Wagner, A., Ortman, S., Maxfield, R. (2016). From the primordial soup to self-driving cars: standards and their role in natural and technological innovation.Journal of The Royal Society Interface,13(115), 20151086. Xie, F., Lin, Z. (2017). Market-driven automotive industry compliance with fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards: Analysis based on consumer choice.Energy Policy,108, 299-311.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Statement of the problem The care and support for the developmentally disabled residents at Heritage Christian Home on Yorktown Road in Penfield, New York, is proving to be a jigsaw puzzle with regard to hiring of the staff to care for the disabled. The Home is faced with an acute shortage of labor force. This has forced the Home to embark on hiring older staff to serve the developmentally disabled.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on The Experienced Touch at Heritage Christian Home specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has so far seen the trend reverse in terms of hiring the staff. Fives years ago, a job that used to be done by fresh college graduates has now been taken up by old retirees who are over sixty five years. In the 1990s, the New York State Cares launched an initiative aimed at reducing the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s 10,000-persons on waiting list for admittance to group homes. This move exacerbated faster growt h of care institutions. They have set up many homes within a short time. The process of recruiting these older counselors and other old staff has become expensive. The staffing crisis has compelled Heritage Christian Home to use very expensive advertising media like cable TV and radio as opposed to putting adverts in the classified section. The growth of homes has been blamed on this issue. Possible causes of the problem The possible causes of the problem can be identified. Firstly, nowadays, there is an illusion about the old staff at the facility from the residents about their services. Secondly, the demand for the old staff has increased. The reason cited for the increased demand for this group of staff is because of the setting up of many other organizations involved in the care of the developmentally disabled persons. Secondly, there is an illusion from the residents about the old having experience and parental skills as opposed to fresh graduates from college. Thirdly, with th e entry of other organizations in providing care, there is increased competition, thus making adverting for the recruitment of old staff become very expensive. Analysis of these causes or reasons behind the problem The feeling of the residents as depicted by the staff is testimony of their work. The state to some extend has contributed to the menace with the opening up of more homes. Examining the problem because of the high demand of the old, one can say the organizations should rethink the kind of staff to hire. However, the old care givers are favored at these homes because of their experienced touch, furthermore, they come with parenting skills. The global credit crunch could also be pushing the retirees to consider looking for gainful employment. On one hand, the move is welcome to hire the old, because it reduces the burden of supporting these old by the young. On the contrary, the retirees are seen as taking the jobs that would otherwise been held by fresh graduates from coll ege. Retirees can be supported by retirement schemes.Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Suggestions/recommendations The Home plays an important role in improving the quality of life of the developmentally disabled residents. The labor force crisis can be resolved by; hiring the young fresh graduates from college who are readily available; the exploration of other cheap avenues for recruiting these old people; offering internship opportunities to young fresh college graduates. This will enable them to work with the old experienced staff and learn the parental skills of caring for the developmentally disabled persons. These strategies can go along way in addressing the problem of increased demand of experienced old staff in these Homes. This case study on The Experienced Touch at Heritage Christian Home was written and submitted by user Emilie Chambers to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Pit Bull Pit Bulls Attack Nun I feel that not only the dogs were at fault but also the, police and the dog owner. First of all what kind of stupid animals would attack a nun, servent of god these animals will most likely be going to dog hell. I do not want to point a finger at the dogs as much as I do at the owner though. The owner must have trained the pit bulls to attack humans because no dogs attack humans without having been trained to do so. Also why were the dogs loose should they not have been in a kennel? The owner of these demons should be held accountable for their and his own actions.Secondly people reported that these vicious killing machines roamed the street for days surely these people reported it to the police if so why did the police not remove the dogs before they injured some one.Australian Dog HeadBefore the nun was attacked an injury was reported also caused by these beasts it is obvious that the police would have known about this but did they remove the dogs. So the inju ries caused by these dogs were partly the fault of police incompetence.As you can se there are a few groups at fault here; the dogs who most definitely will be killed, the owner of the animals who will most likely suffer legal consequences in the form of a law suit and may even have to spend time in jail. The police will get away without any penalties. All of the people and animals involved in this situation are lucky in the sense that neither the nun nor the other person who was attacked by the dogs died. Finally I want to say that I hope that this never happens in...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Mattel Toy Company - Essay Example In August 2007, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission asked the consumers to stop buying 967,000 pieces of a certain toy manufactured by Fisher Price which is a subsidiary of Mattel Company (U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2008). These toys were recalled because the lead in paints used in toys was180 times more than the quantity allowed by law (ODonnell, 2007). This quantity of this toxic was clearly excessive and could cause a great deal of harm to the children who used it (U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2008). Besides this, a few of Products produced by Mattel Company were also said to contain small magnets which were very dangerous for the young children who played with those toys because of the harm to swallowing them. How did Mattel Toy Company respond to this situation? Any company that wants to stay in the market, be it a giant and a leading company like Mattel Toy Company would assure the society that the company is concerned about them. The first step that it took was to check their products immediately and consider itself accountable. It acknowledged that the lead in their paints was 0.11 percent while only 0.06 percent was allowed (ODonnell, 2007). Mattel Toy Company also recognized its responsibility and immediately identified and recalled about 1.5 Million products that were dangerous. According to one source, the company gave the consumers the benefit to return the products that were announced to contain excessive amount of lead in the paint (U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2008). Besides this, it also recalled all its toys that were said to contain small magnets. This was the result of deaths and surgeries of young children because of ingesting these small parts. The toys that were recalled because of magnets amounted to 18 Million (Mattel, 2007). All the recall information was posted on the internet and all the consumers were made aware
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Hitler's Table Talk - Term Paper Example This essay describes the HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s table talk that are mostly spontaneous conversations, that were held between 1941 and 1944 majorly concentrated on what Adolf Hitler, the governor of Germany commented. There were also individuals, who were given the task of taking notes from the conversation between the Hitler and his visitors. Most of the meetings consisted of Hitler and the Nazi leaders who had common interests on the topics of war and religion. Borman and Henry Picker wrote and recorded notes directly from the meeting conversation between the prominent leaders. They wrote information from the comments the GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s governor said. Some of the topics Hitler commented and discussed by the researcher of this essay were on: the religion he preferred his people to practice, the war on his enemies, and his personal life. Lastly, he commented on English language and how it was inferior to the national German language. It is stated by the researcher that Hitler believed that German language was popular globally compared to English language, which was spreading exceptionally fast. It is later concluded by the researcher of the essay that Adolf Hitler was truly a dictator to both his people and foreigners living in Germany. It is mentioned that he perceived war as a solution to all his problems and worries, therefore, killed many lives that he did not favor. In conclusion, it is stated that HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s table talk has assisted the world to know what kind of mind Hitler had about various aspects in life.
Monday, November 18, 2019
Human rights - Essay Example Human rights history got its shape through major world events and more especially the struggle for freedom, dignity, and equality globally. The establishment of the United Nations in 1945, contributed to the formal and universal recognition of human rights. It reaffirmed the faith of people taking part of it in dealing with human rights (Donnelly, 9). One of the major achievements of the human rights was the formation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that still has a heavy impact on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives worldwide. Human rights are constantly evolving and their standards change according to the needs and interests of human beings. An individual requires not buying, receive, or inherit their right. This is because they belong to human beings and are applicable to all people at all times and are the birthrights of all humans thus making them universal. Human beings need them to live a good life without undermining them live a dignified life. Terrorism is a major factor that contributes to people not enjoying their right to life. In addition, terrorism destabilizes the governments; therefore, undermining civil society, jeopardizes peace and security, and threatens the economic and social development of a country. Moreover, the security of an individual, which is a basic human right, is at risk. Therefore, states have a duty and obligation to ensure that they are taking positive measures to ensure that their nationals get protection against the threats of terrorists and bringing the perpetrators to justice. Corruption is rampant worldwide and the people who commit are either people who work in the private or public sector. The existence of corruption shows the failure of the state towards human rights obligation. Corruption affects the nature of equality and human dignity. Human beings have a right to live in a
Friday, November 15, 2019
Success Factors for International Students in the UK INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS NEED MORE THAN PROFICIENT VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN A BRITISH UNIVERSITY The English language is both a bridge and barrier for international students. As well as it allows to cross borders and access education in variety of fields. Although, many people believe that international students need more than proficient vocabulary and grammar to be successful in a British university is acceptable, I think in reverse manner and agree to given statement. Different kinds of courses place differing language demands on. Government authorities in the UK seem to be under ever-greater pressure to regulate language proficiency levels to ensure that students entering the country have a reasonable chance of succeeding academics. My inclination is justified in the following paragraphs. Out of all the arguments the strongest one to prove my argument is they should have the listening skills to here fully in their lectures and students are writing on papers in their native language and changing them to English, Through some kind of google translator or similar program. As well as, student is even paying professional services to write their essays for them, and this is all due to a poor grasp of the English. This is to say a student does not have a proficient ability in English grammar and vocabulary, they will not be successful studying in a UK university. A good example for this is Language ability is possibly the most important challenge affecting international students in British higher education. Besides this, I mean lectures were deeply frustrated with the high proportion of language errors appearing in assignments submitted by international students. The other reason to prove my point is international students do not have the linguistic skills to understand comp lex academic texts, meaning they have been unable to achieve good results. Fraudulent tests could also be a problem. Many students were failing due to language, so they decided recently to re-test them upon arrival. Still a barrier to success for international students. The other reason to prove my point is students themselves reported difficulty in comprehending lectures to a combination of poor listening skills and lack of vocabulary. As well as, many international students are struggling linguistically. In addition, the fact to enter British university, in theory must have achieved a certain level of English and standardized tests. The importance of vocabulary is demonstrated daily in and out of the university. In classroom, the achieving students possess the most sufficient vocabulary. On the contrary, some people counter claim the mentioned support. In addition, many students are coached to pass these tests and therefore they are not a true indicator of a students language level. Many international students do not have the linguistic strength to truly achieve a university degree in the UK. In addition, the fact is language proficiency is at the core of writing but, academic writing involves more than an accurate knowledge of grammar. As well as , true problem for international student written assignments in UK universitys is not language related errors, it is their lack of familiarity with academic conventions. For example, such as how to correctly structure an essay, and therefore how to provide an academic argument. On the contrary, some people counter claim the mentioned support. The foremost argument is they do is for international students, reports, essay, and dissertations will have to be written in a style that is unfamiliar to them. Also, own language would not be acceptable for a British reader. Thus, to wrap up the discussion, it can be said that despite even though all international students in the study had been admitted to their degree courses on the basis that their level of English would be sufficient to be successful on the course, the correlation between their scores in the password knowledge test and their academic grade averages was positive or strong and there should be no pretenses that grammatical and lexical accuracy and inaccuracy are inconsequential of course there are good reasons to have relatively wide access to UK universities for international students and to ensure the barrier represented by English proficiency requirements is unnecessarily high. My reasons are logically acceptable. Bibliography Reference 1 https://journals.beds.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/jpd/article/view/314/495 Reference 2 Text 1 from reading and writing pamphlet UNIT 6.1 reading to writing TEXT 1 Reference 3 Text 2 from reading and writing pamphlet UNIT 6.1 reading to writing TEXT 2
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Response to "The Yellow Wallpaper" The woman behind this work of literature portrays the role of women in the society during that period of time. "The Yellow Wallpaper" written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, is a well written story describing a woman who suffers from insanity and how she struggles to express her own thoughts and feelings. The author uses her own experience to criticize male domination of women during the nineteenth century. Although the story was written fifty years ago, "The Yellow Wallpaper" still brings a clear message how powerless women were during that time. Women were regard as a second class of people. They had neither legal right nor respect from their male counterparts. When the narrator's husband, John, a physician, placed the narrator in the horrid room with yellow wallpaper, and bed-rested, he claimed that he knew what is best for his wife. The narrator had no choice but to obey her husband since her brother, who was a male physician, was convinced by her husband's theory. "So I take phosphates of phosphites-whichever it is-and tonics, and air and exercise, and journeys, and am absolutely forbidden to "work" until I am well again" (pg277). Male domination is clearly seen here as the males claimed that their decision was always the right choice. "I thought it was a good time to talk, so I told him that I really was not gaining here, and that I wished he would take me away"(pg283). The narrator tried to convince her husband to change his treatment because she thought that her husband's prescription was not working for her, instead her husband asked her to go to sleep. Her husband's ignorance clearly shows that even the narrator herself had no power over her own health. She just simply said, "But ... ...perhaps to show John and Jennie that she was no longer weak like she used to be and was now free. In conclusion, the yellow wallpaper is a brilliant work literature of which depicts a woman as a permissive and controlled by her dominant husband. While women now enjoyed freedom and peace in a liberal nation like America, we must not forget in the impoverish states like Afghanistan or Pakistan, women are still being enclosed behind the bars of the "Yellow Wallpaper." They, just like in the past, have no right in their society and have no idea that women can actually enjoy the kind of freedom like their male counterparts. "The Yellow Wallpaper" does not only serve as a witness of what has happened in the past, it has also served the purpose of a reminder of what we must be doing in the future to bring freedom and rights to women all over the world. (779 words)
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Individuals working in hospice are a great example of chronic bereavement. Ã¢â¬Å"Chronic Bereavement refers to multiple losses and include the effects of chronic anticipatory, and unresolved grief, as well as the compounding effects of experiencing several episodes of grief concurrentlyÃ¢â¬ (Hooyman p 349). While meeting the emotional needs of the dying and their families health services professionals donÃ¢â¬â¢t have always have time to deal with their own grief appropriately. Compassion Fatigue Ã¢â¬Å"Compassion fatigue describes the convergence of secondary traumatic stress and cumulative stress or burnout, which is most prevalent among professionals, family members, and associates of trauma survivors (Hooyman p350). Many human service workers have had some kind of early-life trauma that influenced their career choice which makes them more vulnerable to compassion fatigue. The symptoms of compassion fatigue are similar to those of primary traumatic stress disorder. They differ in that compassion fatigue doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect the health care provider. Vicarious Traumatization Vicarious traumatization (VT) is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the negative transformation in a helperÃ¢â¬â¢s inner experience that takes place as a result of deep empathic engagement with traumatized clients couples with a sense of professional responsibility to help.Ã¢â¬ (Hooyman p350). There are many considerations when treating vicarious traumatization, especially during self-care such as awareness, balance, and connection. Awareness is to recognize signs and symptoms of vicarious traumatization, avoid substances that numb your feelings and awareness and listen to those who have noticed changes in you and discuss those changes. Balance is setting limits to availability to therapeutic work and setting realistic expectations. Then you need to know to apply what you have learned in the workplace and your personal life. Burnout Burnout is one of the main reasons for the quick turnaround in the health care profession. Ã¢â¬Å"Burnout refers to physical, emotional, and psychological exhaustion accompanied by a sense of demoralization and diminishing caring and creativity and personal accomplishmentsÃ¢â¬ . (Hooyman p352) To avoid burnout to quickly, health professionals may need to take long weekends or vacations to rejuvenate themselves. Countertransference Ã¢â¬Å"Countertransference is broadly defined as the personal reactions elicited in the professional relationship, directed toward the client and stemming from the professionalÃ¢â¬â¢s previous experiences.Ã¢â¬ (Hooyman p 355) Countertransference occurs when a health care provider has unresolved issues and those issues affect the patient. Countertransference reactions include but are not limited to: being overprotective, rejecting a client, needing constant approval or reinforcement. Self-awareness is necessary to avoid countertransference.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Poverty is not a choice essays Recently, I had read an article in The New City newspaper entitled, Poverty is really a matter of choice. I found the article to be quite deceptive. Actually, I was dazed at the editors justification concerning that poverty was a matter of choice. Solomon, in his brief anecdotes about his poor deprived friends was in fact, far from living in poverty. Also, in his next argument using the U.S and Canadas statistics, were found by me to be misleading to the reader. One last thing I would like to mention is on his statement that, Lifestyle choices dictate income levels, not the other way around. But we dont choose to be poor. Solomons explanations on choosing to live in poverty were very ludicrous and very unconvincing. His antidotes and statistics didnt help in convincing, but did a great job of trying to mislead the reader. We human beings, without a doubt, make decisions to our advantage, and never the other way around. So why would we want choose to live a life of poverty w hen we can live a pleasant life of wealth? Since I do not agree with Solomons theory, I would not believe that people would choose to live in poverty. Rather, I believe that poverty is in some way controlled by the persons living environment, education, or maybe perhaps its in their genes ever since the day they were born. Hillary, a hotel chambermaid, was described as middle aged woman living in poverty, in the opinion of editor Solomon. Hillary is a woman who desires a life of simplicity, although not earning much as a chambermaid; she does live a stable and enjoyable life in one of British Columbias picture book valleys. She may not have money for restaurants and VCRs. But despite of those facts, she is not living in poverty. The correct definition of someone living in poverty would be that one does not have enough money for their basic necessitie...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
As a follower of transcendentalism, Thoreau projected individualism in his literary works, Walden and Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Disobedience.Ã¢â¬ Thoreau had a deep emphasis on nature, as displayed in his works, as well as his freedom and following conscience. Walden Pond was one of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite spots in Concord, Massachusetts. Walden Pond is a symbol for self-exploration; it must answer human nature depth for depth. Even as a very young child, he could stand alone among the trees at Walden Pond and not feel lonely. The people around his small town referred to Thoreau as Ã¢â¬Å"natureÃ¢â¬â¢s own childÃ¢â¬ (Reef 21). Thoreau spent more time outdoors than in the small cabin he built by Walden Pond. Thoreau took long walks in the woods and fields around his town in Concord, Massachusetts. While he was at Walden, Thoreau was alone quite often, but he was rarely lonely. Walden is a book about ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences while living in the woods beside Walden Pond. Walden is not a long book, but it is filled with wonderful sentences that grab at your mind and stay in your ear (Burleigh 20). This book has helped many people think about and change their lives. Thoreau summed up his reasoning for living by Walden Pond by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essentials facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not livedÃ¢â¬ (Daugherty 15). Thoreau felt peaceful and at one with nature. He felt deeply about nature; he felt it reached right into your feelings. Yet thoughts (Ring 5). Thoreau felt that Ã¢â¬Å"Natural objects and phenomena are the original symbols or types which express our thoughts and feelings, and yet American scholars, having little or no root in the soil, commonly strive with all their might to confide themselves to the imported symbols alone. All the true growth and experience, the living speech, they would fa... Free Essays on Henry David Thoreau Free Essays on Henry David Thoreau As a follower of transcendentalism, Thoreau projected individualism in his literary works, Walden and Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Disobedience.Ã¢â¬ Thoreau had a deep emphasis on nature, as displayed in his works, as well as his freedom and following conscience. Walden Pond was one of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite spots in Concord, Massachusetts. Walden Pond is a symbol for self-exploration; it must answer human nature depth for depth. Even as a very young child, he could stand alone among the trees at Walden Pond and not feel lonely. The people around his small town referred to Thoreau as Ã¢â¬Å"natureÃ¢â¬â¢s own childÃ¢â¬ (Reef 21). Thoreau spent more time outdoors than in the small cabin he built by Walden Pond. Thoreau took long walks in the woods and fields around his town in Concord, Massachusetts. While he was at Walden, Thoreau was alone quite often, but he was rarely lonely. Walden is a book about ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences while living in the woods beside Walden Pond. Walden is not a long book, but it is filled with wonderful sentences that grab at your mind and stay in your ear (Burleigh 20). This book has helped many people think about and change their lives. Thoreau summed up his reasoning for living by Walden Pond by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essentials facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not livedÃ¢â¬ (Daugherty 15). Thoreau felt peaceful and at one with nature. He felt deeply about nature; he felt it reached right into your feelings. Yet thoughts (Ring 5). Thoreau felt that Ã¢â¬Å"Natural objects and phenomena are the original symbols or types which express our thoughts and feelings, and yet American scholars, having little or no root in the soil, commonly strive with all their might to confide themselves to the imported symbols alone. All the true growth and experience, the living speech, they would fa...
Monday, November 4, 2019
What are the primary benefits and risks associated with related diversification - Coursework Example Related diversification also helps in spreading the risk. This is done by manufacturing similar good or those that are related to them, therefore leading to similar services being offered, or penetrating new markets. When a company can use existing resources and experience, it gets to enjoy a better quality due to the company producing part of the raw material or components for its main production line. This eventually leads to lower prices and eventually widening the market. It also assures the company of regular supplies. This in turn puts the company in a strategic position, therefore, less competition. Another benefit is that strategic goals can be combined. When everyone has the same objective, then there is the possibility of achieving even more and, as a result, opportunities resulting throughout the production can be shared and fully utilized. It also an opportunity to a firm to share technologies, acquired skills and experiences that the companies have. They are also able to enjoy the same distribution channels, similar techniques of running a business and adapting resources. It also leads to economies of scale being achieved through the elimination of different types of expenditure when more than one business activity is developed in a common company (Corporate Strategy). The risks associated with related diversification include changing conditions, failure to predict future success because there may be divestment due to changing situations. If diversification is done for wrong reasons, it could lead to failure of creating value. The company also faces a risk of reduction in
Friday, November 1, 2019
Socioeconomic classes - Essay Example On the other hand health issues due to poor nutrition, scarcity of resources, no revelation to the latest technologies, lack of education and awareness hampers the self-esteem of a child belonging to a family with low socioeconomic status. Parents of low socioeconomic group do not possess high degrees and lack exposure as well as confidence to face the competent world. Research reveals that SES is linked with an extensive assortment of physical condition, cognitive, and socio-poignant upshots in kids. These implications are experienced by the child right from the fetal stage and continue throughout the life (Bradley, 2002). Child belonging to high SES gets right to use various information, substances and communal sources or responses to deal with stress generating situations. SES influences welfare at numerous intensities, both within the family and those associated with the family and surroundings. Its implications are restrained by kids 's individual personality, relations and outs ide collaborative procedures (Bradley, 2002). References Bradley, R. H., Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic Status and Child Development.
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Legal Memo - Essay Example These references were used to facilitate the research process. Relevant case law was found and applied to the case study. First an executive summary of the case was the introduction, followed by facts, issues, conclusion, analysis, and another conclusion. Legal Research and Writing Legal Memorandum Fall, 2009 Memorandum [Word Count: 1530] To: Partner From: Lawyer Date: October 24, 2009 RE: Potential Remuneration for Emotional Distress and Child Support Introduction You have asked me to prepare a memorandum analyzing the circumstances regarding the potential remuneration for emotional distress and child support paid under the guise of paternity fraud. The primary parties involved are Brad and Tanya Simpson. The main issues of this legal analysis are: 1) if emotional distress was caused to Brad, does he have any recourse to sue for damages; and 2) if, through Tort of Deceit, Brad has any recourse to incur financial gain from having paid child support in a case of what can only be described as paternity fraud. The main area of law is torts. For the purposes of this memorandum, the research methodology was limited to an analysis of the authorities you provided in conjunction with your initial request. Facts The client is Brad Simpson. He and Tanya Rogers were married in June of 1996, on Fraser Island, in Queensland. In July of 1997, Tanya gave birth to their first child, a boy named David. In November of 1998, Tanya gave birth to a second child, a daughter named Lisa. A third child, a boy named Rod, was born in February 2000. Brad was named as the father on the birth notification forms for all three children and had signed off as such when Tanya presented him with the forms. Brad and Tanya always had a tumultuous relationship. They regularly had...The main area of law is torts. The client is Brad Simpson. He and Tanya Rogers were married in June of 1996, on Fraser Island, in Queensland. In July of 1997, Tanya gave birth to their first child, a boy named David. In November of 1998, Tanya gave birth to a second child, a daughter named Lisa. A third child, a boy named Rod, was born in February 2000. Brad was named as the father on the birth notification forms for all three children and had signed off as such when Tanya presented him with the forms. Brad and Tanya always had a tumultuous relationship. They regularly had massive fights and Brad would end up spending many nights sleeping on the couch. Tanya was often distant and both seemed to struggle with raising three small children. The couple decided to separate in January 2001. The marriage was dissolved in 2008. After the separation, Tanya applied for child support payments. Brad began making these payments in respect of all three children. These payments continued for the next seven years, until 2008. In 2006, Tanya had informed Brad that she had an extra-marital affair around the time she became pregnant with the second child.
Monday, October 28, 2019
Slavery In the Chocolate Factory Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Quality is the measure of excellence or state of being free from deficiency, defects, and significant variations, (Nader, 2009). Quality of a product can be mainly assessed from a manufacturer and a customer point of view. From a customer point of view, product quality is perspective as each individual perceives quality differently. Ultimately, product quality is the capability of the product to fulfil customer expectations as required from the users. Quality from a manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective depends on company size, culture, financial resources, human resources, market pressures and company strategy. Due to the availability of a large number of products in the market, different industries have put forward different parameters that allow a product to be judged against the competition. For example, an electronic product may have quality parameters such as performance, reliability, safety and appearance that has to be met (UNIDO, 2006). Process quality Process quality targets the life cycle of a product from the beginning, design, development, roll out, updates and product support. Both product and process quality are combined together and quality control measures put in place to ensure the final outcome is of a high quality. Interaction between product quality and process quality In order to produce a quality product it requires a quality process. This involves maintaining the process operating at a level that complies with required quality criteria. When the quality of a process varies it will have a direct impact on product characteristics and hence product quality. For example, a metal producing plant has processes such as cutting, machining, bending and coating. The smoothness, hardness and thickness etc of the metal are directly impacted by the quality of the processes. Once the metal is manufactured, the customer will judge it against the product specification and make a judgement on quality. (McGraw-Hill, 2002) Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker is a company that prides itself on product quality. As a result of this it led to an increase in customer demand and an increase in market share. To maintain the high quality of the end product while meeting demand, Jim Harris and co. put in place procedures that assisted them to retain quality throughout the different stages of the production process. The following table provides a summary of the quality techniques used in the production line: Table 1 Quality Techniques in Production Line Production StageQuality assurance and quality control techniques used to maintain quality of the process Bean CleanerÃ¢â¬ ¢The precise process associated with separating the waste from beans. Ã¢â¬ ¢Once cleaned, storing the beans under specific climate and humidity controls RoasterÃ¢â¬ ¢Roasting different types of beans separately. Ã¢â¬ ¢Human tasting WinnowerÃ¢â¬ ¢Precise process associated with separating cocoa beans from the shell MelangeurÃ¢â¬ ¢Quality testing of the product for texture, taste and physical properties ConcheÃ¢â¬ ¢Quality testing of the product done through a scrape gauge to measure the level of smoothness Tempering and moldingÃ¢â¬ ¢Human testing for texture, snap and taste PackagingÃ¢â¬ ¢Check quality after the production line GeneralÃ¢â¬ ¢Blind tasting at different stages Ã¢â¬ ¢Hiring skilled operators Ã¢â¬ ¢Calibration of equipment All the above processes will assist in maintaining the quality of the final product. While using third party companies with the productions process, product quality is maintained by random sampling and testing to ensure the product meets required specifications. Quality process analysis Quality control measures are put into place before and during the production process to ensure the raw materials and processes are of acceptable quality. To ensure a high quality product at each stage of the production process quality techniques can be used such as quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and through means of continuous process improvements. By implementing these strategies business risks with regard to quality can be managed. However, a cost benefit analysis is required to be carried out to determine if the extent of quality assurance and quality control is beneficial to the business. The final inspection of the product is used for quality assurance as well. There is a fine balance between quality and cost of any product. If the product maintains a higher than required quality and the cost is high due to this very requirement, demand will decrease. Therefore, quality should be maintained at a level where it is sustainable so that a the product can be cost effective to face a competitive market. In the case study, HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢s team experiments with different techniques to reduce the time required to prepare the chocolate at different stages of the process of chocolate making. It is clear that with the changes in the processes of chocolate production, the final quality was sometimes so much affected that the pioneers of the factory refused to endorse the change. This proves that there is an undeniable interaction between product quality and process quality. However, the decision was made to make changes in the process only after so many trials, testing and tasting. This demonstrates that, In order to make a good quality product a series of quality processes are required. To maintain quality process a series of quality control systems are required. In a process quality control scheme the sequence of the steps is very important as some processes will be critical which would reflect largely in the quality of the final product. The following table details each process where Harris and his team have incorporated quality control schemes to minimise variation. Table 2 HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢s Quality Control Schemes in the process Process sequenceQuality control Raw material quality controlPurchase BeansFind the farmers who grew the highest quality bean Ferment beans properly before dried and shipped to US Process quality controlBean CleanerThe precise process associated with separating the waste from beans. Once cleaned, storing the beans under specific climate and humidity controls. RoasterRoasting different types of beans separately to optimize the flavor. Operator monitor the temperature and taste the sample. WinnowerPrecise process associated with separating cocoa beans from the shell. MelangeurUse historical melangeur to perform task. Operator determined the time of completion based on look, feel, and taste. Ball MillIt provide quality benefits by decreasing the amount of flavor degradation. The resulting chocolate be tested and evaluated for quality. ConcheAeration was an important step for the quality control as bubble will created when blades moves. Quality testing of the product done through a scrape gauge to measure the level of smoothness Tempering and moldingHuman testing for level of stability, glossy surface, smooth feel in the mouth and snap. Quality control when transporting liquid chocolate to third-party molding. Finished product inspectionPackagingOwn packing in order to keep a close eye on quality. Third-party pacing as they have better equipment and quality control. Quality control at when re-melt and re-temper procedure. Check quality after the production line. Critical control points (CCp) can affect the quality of the finished product. However, not all steps in the process are considered as critical points. Specification or guidelines can assist in maintaining quality of certain products. These set regulations and standards such as to ISO 9000 and ISO 9001 that need to be complied with in a process. Transport or shipping becomes critical points because for example, the basic problem with transporting chocolate in containers is its relatively low melting point. Solar radiation and other external influences (heat sources, such as double bottom tanks, engine rooms) may cause the temperature in the container to rise considerably and exceed the melting point, so making enormous quality degradation inevitable. Process Bottlenecks. A bottleneck in project management is one process in a chain of processes, such that its limited capacity reduces the capacity of the whole chain (Wikipedia, 2012). The capacity of the production process is determined by the slowest chain task. These slow tasks are referred to as bottlenecks and they have an impact on the throughput of a manufacturing process. Bottlenecks in a manufacturing process refer to resources that requires the longest time in operation to meet demand. One of the characteristics of bottlenecks is that it makes the operating rate of the non-bottlenecks operate below 100%. Hence increasing capacity of the bottlenecks helps to reduce the time required for the entire process. However when one bottleneck is eliminated then another bottleneck is usually formed (Imaoka, 2009). The bottlenecks in the process can inhibit flow, cause inventories, and prevent throughout from matching customer demand. This chapter identified the capacity of bottlenecks throughout the process, analysed the management and improvement methods in order to make progress towards Scharffen BergerÃ¢â¬â¢s goal. Process flow diagram. The first step to create a process flow diagram is to define the process boundaries. The process boundaries are the entry and exit points of inputs and outputs of the process. The input of Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker process is the raw chocolate bean and the output will be packaged chocolate ready to sell. Once the boundaries are defined, the process flow diagram is a valuable tool for understanding the process using graphic elements to represent tasks, flows and storage. Figure 1 is flow diagram represents Scharffen Berger Chocolate maker production process at earlier 2005: Figure 1 Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker Production Process The symbols in a process flow diagram are defined as follows: Rectangles: represent tasks. The equipment capacity, process capacity, duration and flow time are listed under each of the task. Arrows: represent flows. Flows include the flow of material and the flow of information. In this case the flow represents flow of raw bean, roasted bean, waste, Nibs, and chocolate. Triangles: represent storage (inventory). Storage bins commonly are used to represent raw material inventory, work in process inventory, and finished goods inventory. The process flow diagram linked tasks in series are performed sequentially. Tasks drawn in parallel such as two Conche machine and different packaging options are performed simultaneously. In the above diagram, raw bean is held in a storage bin at the beginning of the process. After the last task, the output also is stored in a storage warehouse. Scharffen Berger typically kept on to two monthes of inventory in stock for each of its major products. Process performance measures. In order to identify the bottlenecks in Scharffen Berger Chocolate manufacture process, the process performance measures become essential, this aspects include: Capacity Ã¢â¬â The capacity is its maximum quantity that the equipment capable to perform in once. This parameter can affect the process rate and utilisation of equipment. Process capacity Ã¢â¬â The process capacity is its maximum output rate, measured in units produced per unit of time. The capacity of a series of tasks is determined by the lowest capacity task in the string. The parallel tasks is the sum of the capacities of the two strings. Flow time Ã¢â¬â The average time that a unit requires to flow through the process from the entry point to the exit point. The flow time includes both processing time and any time the unit spend between steps. Duration Ã¢â¬â The duration is the total running time of each of the task in a week unit, it can be one shift a day, seven days a week. The inventory in the process is related to the throughput rate and throughput time: WIP Inventory = Throughput Rate x Flow Time This relation is known as LittleÃ¢â¬â¢s Law, named after John D. C Little whos proved it mathematically in 1961 (Barton et al, 2002). The process bottleneck improvement. The process bottleneck occurred at the slowest flow rate of the series task in the process. The bottleneck can be found by comparing the process capacity. Saving time in the bottlenecks activity saves time for the entire process. Saving time in a non-bottleneck activity does not help the process since throughout rate is limited by the bottleneck. If the next slowest task is much faster than the bottleneck, then the bottleneck is having a major impact on the process capacity (Starnes, 2000). Operating hour The first bottleneck of production capacity throughout process was identified as operating hour. Before Harris manage the Scharffen Berger, in order to avoid overtime payment to employee, the business only operating one shift per day. The equipments such as Conches, Melangeurs, were not efficiently used. Harris calculated each completed conche could be worth over $30,000 in sales and industry average 40% in contribution on sales. It would be worth to pay overtime and increase productions. Conche operating The second capacity bottleneck throughout the process can be identified as conche operating hour. Scharffen Berger owned two Conches used to refine, mix and aerate the chocolate. The disadvantage of this machine is time consuming, each 1400kg bath of chocolate liquor typically spend 48 to 72 hours inside of the conche machine. Figure 2 indicate the identified bottleneck task (red colour) in the Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker process in earlier 2005. Figure 2 Conche Bottleneck in Scharffen Berger Process The production rate of Conche is the slowest compare with other tasks. The total capacity for two Conche is 2800kg, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s requiring 40-60 hrs to finish each operation, Conche working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The capacity of the melangeur is 115kg and requires 1. 25hr to finish the job. The working duration of melangeur is 16 hours a day, 7 days a week. By applying production rate formula: By comparing the production rate, the bottleneck of the process can be identified as conche task. Two conche working 24hours a day compare with melangur only work 16 hours a day, the maximum working hour of melangur can not be reached as it constrained by slow operation of conche. In order to improve bottleneck of conche, the ball mill has been introduced as it can perform most conche tasks effectively. Instead of 40-60 hours, the ball mill can grain particles from 100 microns to 25 microns in three hours. The conche would still be needed for its aeration mixing function. The total operation time for ball mill and conche can reduce to 15 hours instead 40-60 hours. Melangeur operating After the company decided to use ball mill instead of conches, melangeur becomes the capacity bottleneck throughout the process. The capacity of the ball mill and conche is 1400kg and requires 15 hours to finish the job. The working duration of melangeur is 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. By applying production rate formula: Since the production rate of melangeur only 1472 kg/day, the melangeur becomes the capacity bottleneck throughout the process. Figure 3 show the new flow chart as the ball mill introduced. The melangeur was used to grind the nibs; this released the cocoa butter and turned the dry nibs into chocolate paste. The company recently located a used melangeur that could be purchased and refurbished for $50,000. Figure 3 Melangeur Bottleneck in Scharffen Berger Process Molding process The last bottleneck affect the production capacity process could be modelling process. The larger, faster modelling equipment would be prohibitively expensive, and several third party co-packers had excess capacity and would be able to model more Scharffen Bergers chocolate. Harris thought Scharffen Berger might avoid the resulting duplication of the tempering and modelling steps by transferring the liquid chocolate directly to the co-packer. Figure 4 shows the operating process when the modelling and packaging task been given to the third party and co-packers. Figure 4 Third Party Molding and Co-Packer for Scharffen Berger Process In this stage, the process boundaries at output point will change from chocolate ready to sell to liquid chocolate. The modelling and packaging task has been withdrawn from operation process. But the challenges is transporting liquid chocolate was a very tricky, expensive and require high level of quality control with third parties. Future improvements The following lists some methods that can improve the operation process for Scharffen Berger Chocolate maker: Add additional resources to increase capacity of the bottleneck. For example, an additional Roaster or Cleaner machine can be added in parallel to increase the capacity. Reduce work-in-process inventory. Reduce the lead time such as reduce the cooling time after roasting the coffee bean. Move task away from bottleneck resources. Increase availability of bottleneck resources, for example, increasing the daily operating hour for melangeur from 16hours a day to 24 hours a day. Minimize non-value adding activities. Such as reduce transporting time, rework, waiting time, testing and inspection time. Redesign the chocolate type for better manufacturability Ã¢â¬â can improve several or all process performance measures. Quality Process For a Premium Quality Product The main aim of any organisation is to provide customer satisfaction by providing product and services. Quality of an end product requires production design based on customer feedback which not only minimises loss but also provides competitive advantages. In Scharffen Berger Chocolate maker case study Scharffen berger prioritises specific areas to achieve a high quality product . These areas are as follows Raw material- Scharffen Berger prided itself on using the highest quality beans available from countries such as Ghana, Trinidad, Jamaica, Domician Republic, Madagascar, and other countries. Scharffen Berger blended up to 9 varieties of beans to make each type of chocolate unlike other companies that used only 2 different types of beans. Steinberg and Scharffen travelled to remote regions near the equator to find farmers who grew the highest quality beans and to ensure that these farmers allowed there beans to ferment properly before shipping them. 2) Cleaning Prior to being roasted, beans were poured into a large bean cleaner machine that separated cocoa beans from objects like dust, small stones and twigs 3) Roaster To enhance the flavour all cocoa beans were roasted before they could be sent to make chocolates. Scharffen Berger roasted each kind of bean separately in order to optimise flavour. The sample was tasted by them regularly in order to check whether the roasting is complete. According to Harris, Ã¢â¬Å"practice of tastingÃ¢â¬ is the best methods of measurements at each stage of the chocolate production process. Once beans were roasted they were used within a few days in order to optimise flavour. 3) Conche Once the chocolates left the melaunger there were still some small nib pieces that needed to be ground further. This was done in the conche. Other premium quality products were also added in the conches which broke all the ingredients down to microscopic pieces. Experiments were also done with powdered sugar in order to reduce the time for Conching but found the taste unacceptable. 4) Tempering and moulding This process was to be done in a specific sequence with a certain degree of stirring. It was used to avoid duplication of the tempering and moulding steps by transferring the liquid steps to co-packers 5) Quality Control This was the most important step performed in order to get a premium quality product. Operators measured the quality of the product by examining its look and texture, breaking it and tasting it. At least once in 15 days, Scharffen Berger management and machine operators got together to calibrate their perceptions and standards for acceptable quality by blind testing the beans and chocolate at various stages of production. 6) Equipment Balmill : using Balmills can increase the capacity of production at least 75%. In addition, it will be extra beneficial for the products with high sugar content by decreasing the amount of flavour degradation that can occur when a premium product is over-processed and excessively manipulated. New equipment such as ball mill will assist in increasing capacity and efficiency of the process. 7) Quality Control: Operators measured the quality of chocolate by constantly examining its appearance, texture, tasting and breaking it. The quality of the product is checked at various stages to test if it is good to be sold. As a result of these quality checks the number of defects in the final product is reduced and will also lead to an overall increase in organizational performance. In addition this will also have a positive flow on effect on customer confidence and customer satisfaction of the product which will yield further increase in demand. 8) Every two months, management and machine operators calibrate their perception and standards for acceptable quality by Ã¢â¬Å"blind testingÃ¢â¬ . 9) Operating time: Increased conformance to legislation such as carbon emissions by reducing operating time. For example the existing conches are operated 24 hours a day and seven days a week. By replacing the conches with the new ball mill, Harris (Chief operating Officer of Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker) and his team will reduces the operating time of machinery and increase the efficiency of the process. Adantages of high quality product Advantages of developing high quality products are, Increase in demand needs increased supply. Addressing the bottlenecks of the production process and improving stages of the process will assist with increasing supply. Increase in customer satisfaction and improving the business output. Using Quality Assurance techniques to check the product at various stages by tasting or testing to ensure that the final product obtained is of premium quality and meets customer expectations will lead to increase in business growth as the customer numbers will increase. Quality improvement is a planed managerial activity. It involves identifying potential improvements, prioritized potential areas of improvement and planning and the implementation of projects and improvementsÃ¢â¬â¢, (Foster, 2010). Scharffen Berger prioritized potential areas of improvement. Then these improvements were planned and implemented in several stages in order to achieve a premium quality product. Every year, more than 30,000 people toured the factory and many of these visitors bought the products during these tours. By demonstrating how good the quality of the processes was, Scharffen Berger won the confidence of his clients. Moreover, quality processes can be used to manage risks in the production line. As a result quality processes can be used as a risk mitigation strategy by business. In the case of Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker, the types of risks that can be minimized by quality processes are quality of raw material, appearance, texture, snapping and tasting. In addition to risk management, customers in general are willing to pay an additional amount of money for a premium quality product. Hence there is a niche market for these chocolates. In order to satisfy customers in this market the business needs to follow high quality process development techniques and produce an end product that will satisfy their high expectations. Innovation leads to high quality process development in the long term and an increase in system efficiency. Hence overtime this will result in competitive advantages over the other products and a greater market share in the industry. Another benefit of high quality process development is that it will lead to standardization or bench marking. Benefits of standardization includes for instance, increase in cost effectiveness (e.g. decrease in manufacturing cost), improve negotiating power with third party companies, simplify support and training, simplify purchase of raw materials, procurement, upgrade and disposal of plant materials and economies of scale in manufacturing, training and testing. High quality process development will also minimise the failure costs of the product, both internal and external. Reasons for using a high quality process The aim of Scharffen Berger chocolate maker is to produce premium chocolates. In order to produce premium chocolates Harris and his team requires high quality process development. Some of the reasons for using a high quality process development are as follows: Another benefit of maintaining supply to future demand is the perceived quality of the product by the customers will improve due to an increase in customer satisfaction. It also improves aesthetics of the Scharffen Berger Chocolates such as taste. Increases reliability of the production line with automation for example the use of the ball mill. It gives the company the opportunity for continuous improvement. For example Harris and his team carried out many investigations to reduce bottlenecks and to increase capacity of the existing production line. As an outcome of their investigation they decided to incorporate a new ball mill. Quality management is incorporated into the production line to ensure consistency of the quality of the product is maintained. This can be reflected in the case study by Harris and his team employing a skilled workforce. Quality assurance is maintained throughout the production line to ensure the high quality of the end product. For example Harris and his team undertook extensive testing and tasting of the product at various stages of production. This report aims to explain the issues underlining the Cocoa industry mainly in South Africa. It relates to child trafficking and the actions that corporations such as Nestles and Mars are taking in order to tackle this issue. Lastly it will conclude the actions one can take as a manager in order to resolve these issues using different theories and approaches. Child Trafficking Child Trafficking is in direct violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948-2008 which states that all humans have a choice to work to just and favourable conditions of work. It also states that everyone should be paid fairly and equal to their work. Lastly it states that everyone has the right to rest and limitation on working hours. Children in South Africa. India and other countries in general arent given any of these things. It is the duty of the people high in power to enforce these rights onto their people by putting strict restrictions which can lead to punishments if broken. Dealing with an issue on a large scale is difficult as it is extremely difficult to keep an eye on such small areas of an operation. Due to the high number of production and harvesting it is easy for companies such as SAF-CACAO to keep their secrets hidden from their buyers e.g. Nestle. However Chocolate manufacturers arent bothered by these issues as their main objective is to maximise profits. Due to the high volume of Coco they buy even a small percentage of increase in price per kg of coco can lead to a huge rise in costs in production. Nestle signed an agreement to end child labour in 2001 however they have failed in this because they didnt carry out checks on their suppliers in South Africa. Reports show that 1. 8 Million children are currently in danger of being used as slaves (Humphrey Hawksley, 2012). Companies such as Nestle and Mars can still deal with this issue by boycotting SAF-CACAO and other companies using child labour because this can reduce their profits and pressuring them into bankruptcy. Ã¢â¬Å"The world must shift the focus of trade from being driven solely by profits to serve people-cantered developmentÃ¢â¬ (Yash Tandon Executive Director of South Centre). If Nestle stops buying from unfair suppliers then this in return promote a better image of their business which will likely to increase their sales and customers will be more happy with Nestles actions. According to McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s theories X Y SAF-CACAO is currently following the Authoritarian Management Style . This is because they are irresponsible and dont take into account the views of their workers and the conditions they are living through. Cultural differences are also playing a major role in this because South Africa is mainly collectivist based and due to this children are trafficked into slavery and even though this is bad they dont really have a choice because if they return to their parents they will probably be punished for not bringing them any money. Due to the lack of education in areas around ivory coast there is a misunderstanding and unethical views on the age at which a child should work. Parents expect children to work and pay their families regardless of their capabilities and the dangers of them being kidnapped. Dealing with these issues wouldnt be possible unless us as customers boycott Nestle and other firms that are buying chocolates from unethical companies. Buying Fair-Trade products is an alternative which we can all resort to even though it is more expensive it is at least ethical. There are many other firms that promote anti-child trafficking such as Freedom Matters , Anti-Slavery. These influence people to replace their normal purchases with fair-trade products. However there is no strict action that anyone can take to stop child trafficking. As a manager of a firm that uses suppliers in Africa it would be wise to set main priority to fight child trafficking, first step would be to enforce the Human rights law in all the companies operations in order to make sure all the operations within the business as well as the businesses that the firm is dealing with all are following this law. Secondly monitoring the origin of cocoa will be carried out to check exactly where it is made and whether the farms are using children to harvest the crops. If this is the case then social services and the police will be notified. Another way to deal with this issue will be to reward suppliers who operate ethically by offering them higher prices for their cocoa. These suppliers can also be monitored on a monthly basis to check if they are working under the human rights act. In majority of growing countries it is very easy to buy someone by offering them a lot of money to do something bad. Due to this it will only be wise for someone high in power to carry out checks on a businesss production because they will likely to be the only people that will give truthful information. Bibliography FairTrade. (2013). What is Fairtrade?. Available: http://www. fairtrade. org. uk/what_is_fairtrade/default. aspx. Last accessed 1st December 2013. Foodispower. (2013). Slavery in the Chocolate Industr. Available: http://www. foodispower.org/slavery-in-the-chocolate-industry/. Last accessed 1st December 2013. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (1945). Preamble. Available: http://www. un. org/en/documents/udhr/. Last accessed 1st December 2013. Douglas Mcgregor. (1960). Douglas Mcgregor Theory X,Y. Available: http://www. businessballs. com/mcgregor. htm. Last accessed 1st December 2013. Humphrey Hawksley. (2012). Nestle failing on child labour abuse, says FLA report. Available: http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/world-africa-18644870. Last accessed 1st December 2013.