Saturday, December 28, 2019
The death penalty has been a debated topic since it began in 1700. The act of deliberately causing the death of another human being has been changed and modified overtime due to different attacks on the credibility of this type of punishment, specifically by Cesare Beccaria, an Italian jurist who is considered the founder of the modern abolishment movement in 1764. According to Procon.org, BeccarriaÃ¢â¬âa prominent European called for an end to the death penalty, and it remained the most influential attack on the death penalty. Due to the multiple moratoriums throughout the states in lieu of the death penalty have replaced it with life imprisonmentÃ¢â¬âwhich is more civil and logical. The disproportionate amount of racial bias, inadequateÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition to that in the past, 23 death penalty cases were overturned due to prosecutors illegally striking black jurors from juries, and nationally 98% of prosecutors are white (Love 2012). The statics allows e veryone to see that there can be an injustice in gaining justice. The right to access to an attorney and rightfully the allowance of the defendant to retain and secure a suitable defense team is a vital hallmark of the American Justice System per the Death Penalty CenterÃ¢â¬â¢s Death Penalty Representation. Most of the time the convicted cannot afford the proper defense team to represent their case which carries a sentence of death. It is essential that an offender have an experienced attorney who will fulfil his/her obligations of the client and the courtÃ¢â¬âwith that decreasing the number of innocent who are eventually convicted and sentenced to death. The number of the wrongfully convicted was more than one hundred and fifty from 1973-2011, slightly increasing from 2000-2011Ã¢â¬âaveraging three to five exonerations a year per procon.org. According to an article on CNN.com, Study: Black People More Likely To Be Wrongfully Convicted written by Tanzina Vega says that a bla ck defendant would be 22% more likely to have police misconduct that those of white defendants as well.Show MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNo Death Penalty Capital crime is something that is meant for people that are found guilty of committing a serious crime, such as murder, rape, or theft. These are offences that should not be taken lightly but by killing the offender, the government is carrying about the action that they are trying to prevent. Also, the wrong person may be sentenced to death. After this person is executed, there is obviously nothing that can be done for the terrible mistake to be reversed. The death penalty shouldRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?. The Death Penalty982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould the death penalty be abolished? The death penalty is a Ã¢â¬Å"term that applies to capital punishment and is the worst penalty given for committing a murder or an atrocious assault.Ã¢â¬ (Black s Law Dictionary). Death penalty has been a part of human society and is legally approved for centuries. The first established death penalty laws date as far back as the Eighteenth Century B.C. in the Code of King Hammaurabi of Babylon, which codified the death penalty for 25 different crimes. Death sentencesRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1925 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Abstract This paper explores five published articles that report on discussion on the very old and yet to answer question of whether the death penalty in the USA should be abolished? The articles, however, vary in their stand on death penalty. In all article it is very different on publisher stand. They discuss thing argument with their own way and vision of thinking. Adina Nicoleta (2011) has raised question for fair trial on the proceeding of the criminal cases. In other article Maestro MarcelloRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntro The death penalty gives humans in our legal system rights to decide who deserves to live, a power only God should possess. Capital Punishment takes away our rights as equals. From its origins, the death penalty has been an inhumane, costly, ineffective, and biased form of punishment that needs to be abolished granting everyone their right to live. History of the Death Penalty Down through history, the death penalty has been adapted to be justifiable in the eyes of the people. By alteringRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescriminals has been performed by nearly every society to date. The death penalty came to the Americas when European settlers brought the idea of capitol punishment from Britain. The ideology behind taking someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life for crimes they have committed is a simple one. If a person commits a hennas crime such as murder or rape, they shall receive the death penalty. In more recent times we now see many countries abolishing the death penalty. The trend suggests that the capitol punishment policies still implementedRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschanged since the 17th century, so why not the age old penalty of death? Capital punishment in the United States is a highly debated topic. Arguments that want to get rid of this method of punishment usually mention th e many problems that capital punishment is plagued with. The death penalty has many issues that cannot be resolved, and since these issues canÃ¢â¬â¢t be solved, the death penalty should be abolished. Ã¢â¬Å"The irrevocable nature of the death penalty renders it an unsustainable and indefensible remedyRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe death penalty is a very controversial topic in the United States. It is implemented for the purpose of providing safety to the community and bringing justice to victims and their families. The death penalty is legal in thirty-one states (Ã¢â¬Å"31 StatesÃ¢â¬ ), and there are over forty different types of federal capital crimes that are eligible for the death penalty. These include crimes such as treason and kidnapping that results in murder (Ã¢â¬Å"41 FederalÃ¢â¬ ). However, many argue whether the death penalty isRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEvery year, thousands of lives are legally taken under the death penalty. Why should we take more lives than the ones that have already been taken? The death penalty is the punishment of execution, carried out legally against an individual convicted of a capital crime. Its proponents argue that the death penalty deters other criminals who may intend to commit similar crimes in the future. However, there is little statistical evidence to support this claim. Also, execution eliminates the criminalRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesShould the death penalty be abolished? The death penalty, also known as capital punishment is a legal procedure in which a state executes a person for crimes he/she has committed. This punishment has been used by many states, and is normally used for serious crimes, especially murder. It is also used on crimes against the state such as treason, crimes against humanity, espionage, and violent crimes while other states use it as part of military justice. There are mixed reactions on capital punishmentRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages 6 Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished in the United States? Adalynne Francis CRJU 1000 Dr. Huss November 14, 14 Should capital punishment/ death penalty be abolished in the United States? Many feel that the death penalty is immoral and question whether the state and federal government deserve the right to kill those whom it has imprisoned. On the other hand, those opposed feel that by not acting upon the death penalty communities would plunge in anarchy and that by
Friday, December 20, 2019
From the moment that the parent learns the biological sex of the baby, even as early as the ultrasound, they begin the first step of making many steps towards the long journey of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization. Even as they consider what the child should be named, they decide whether it is a boy or a girl name and then they proceed with decisions such as what color the room should be painted in association with the biological sex of the child. Will the child be dressed in frilly pink dresses or in blue jeans with plaid shirts? Will the child gain more time with the father fishing or with the mother shopping? From the time the sex is determined, the journey is only just beginning on how the child will be associated with itÃ¢â¬â¢s biological sex. As time goes on, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s biological sex is typically further upheld by traditions, rituals and compliances to meet the social norms of sex, gender, and gender roles. The biological differences between male and female begin with the differences based on the chromosomes. A male has the chromosomes of XY and female and the girl is XX chromosomes. These differences in chromosomes set off a chain of directives that will affect how the physical makeup of the child will be carried out in terms of reproductive characteristics, hormone levels, and growth in the child. It does not however, determine intelligence levels, temperament, agility, or personality traits. Even though the biological, physical differences are clearly different, there areShow MoreRelatedBiological Sex And Gender Roles1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Biological sex refers to both genetic and anatomic. It is different from gender because there is assigned gender which is given to a child at birth and gender identity which is Ã¢â¬Å"a personÃ¢â¬â¢s internal sense of being male or femaleÃ¢â¬ (127). Additionally, there are gender roles which differ by culture and it presents how a person should behavior, the responsibilities a person should have, and their rights based on their sex. Cultural differences can be seen when comparing Arapesh of New Guinea and theRead MoreSex, Gender, And Gender1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPopular understanding reflects the view that sex refers to ones biological functions in comparison to gender, which is solely explained as a cultural impact in depicting ones identity. The conveying of these two concepts create implications in demonstrating the understanding of ones sex or gender as distinct elements, of personal characteristics and human traits. Sex and gender are two contrasting features constantly interrelating, in day-to-day lives. A concise narrowing will be drawn from thisRead MoreGender and Sex Essay963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen considering gender and sex, a laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of these terms might be very different than a sociologistÃ¢â¬â¢s. There is an important distinction: sex, in terms of being Ã¢â¬Å"maleÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â ¬Å"female,Ã¢â¬ is purely the physical biological characteristic differences Ã¢â¬â primarily anatomical differences. (There are also rare cases of Ã¢â¬Å"intersexualÃ¢â¬ individuals as outlined in the Navarro article, Ã¢â¬Å"When Gender IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t a GivenÃ¢â¬ .) Gender, on the other hand, is an often misconstrued concept that is commonly mistaken as synonymousRead MoreThe Topic Of Sexuality1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduce the topic of sexuality (para)- Horrocks (1997) points out in his book that sexuality encircles multiple aspects of human existence. Sexuality is then, not a uniform or simple phenomenon and is influenced by the interaction of psychological, biological, social, cultural factors and many more. Horrocks (1997), suggests that to try and understand or explain a definitive conclusion about sexuality seems impossible as sexuality has different meanings to so many groups of people. Introduce the perspectivesRead MoreGender Roles Of The House And Children And Men Supporting The Family954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbeginning of time the different roles of gender have been no secret, with women taking care of the house and children and men supporting the family. Though times have drastically changed over the years the roles of these two genders have remained the same for the most part. Even with women working and men helping around the house more it is still very clear what the role of ones gender should be. However why has it always been this way? Is it due to our biological make up or just because of the wayRead MoreGender Identity1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Identity Autumn Messina PSY/340 January 24, 2011 Melynda Marchi Gender Identity The development of our gender identity is influenced by both the biological nature of a person and society, but the biology is the foundation of our gender identity. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the interaction between hormones and behavior, and how these interactions affect the determination of gender identity, the roles of biological factors nature and environmentalRead MoreGender Development: Social or Biological1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn a variety of contexts, the word gender is used to describe the masculinity or femininity of words, persons, characteristics, or non-human organisms (Wikipedia, 2006). More specific to psychology, gender role is a term used to describe the normal behavior associated with a given gender status. Those that do not follow this customary role given to their particular gender are said to have an atypical gender role. A person who has normal male genitalia and identifies himself as a man will usuallyRead MoreEssay about Women and Men Are Made, Not Born987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof complex social processes. BeauvoirÃ¢â¬â¢s statement suggests that gender roles and behaviour are not inherent and that social positioning should not be determined by sex. This essay will begin by drawing a distinction between sex and gender, and will then discuss two arguments that explore the origins of gender difference; social construction theory as implied by BeauvoirÃ¢â¬â¢s statement, and the biological determinist position. Gender refers to the socially constructed categories of Ã¢â¬ËmasculineÃ¢â¬â¢ andRead MoreRelationship Between Sex And Gender Essay1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdistinction of gender from came from the move away from biological determinism and conservative antifeminist politics. The meaning of gender will continue to develop and will continue becoming more fluid with time. Introduction The sex and gender distinction is an idea that has been rethought as recently as the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, with input from academics such as Ann Oakley and John Money. In this essay I will be discussing how biological determinism assisted in the development of the term gender, and the distinctionRead MoreThe Current Day And Age Essay1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the current day and age, gender can be a very controversial topic. Back in the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, there were very clearly defined gender roles for males and females. It is no longer as simple as it once was to define gender. Factors such as sociocultural influence, the scientific difference between Ã¢â¬Å"genderÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sexÃ¢â¬ , and politics all play into gender roles and gender identity. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural idea of masculinity and femininity can also differ from other cultures making it a unique definition
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Discuss the ways strategic human resource management (SHRM) could contribute to organizational performance in the next five years. Strategic human resource management contributes to organizational performance. Resource Management is Ã¢â¬Å"the process of ensuring that resources are sufficient and efficient for a task. Resources may include anything a business or organization possesses that is used in the process of creating or maintaining business operations. Strategic Human Resource Management also known as and for the purpose of this essay SHRM is Ã¢â¬Å"designed to help companies best meet the needs of their employers while promoting company goals. This essay will discuss how Strategic human resource management contributes to organizational performance over the next five years how through these determining factors; Identifying major principles within SHRM, Internal and external factors and finally, the two factors above will result in identifying examples that HRM can face when implementing organizational performance over the next five years. Strategic Human Resource Management can contribute to organizational performance in the next 5 years through identifying the major principles within SHRM are of significance. SHRM imposes an intention and focus in finding the most appropriate ways of managing people to effectively acquire the organizations calculated strategy. For the purpose of this essay three major models, which represent the principles of SHRM, will be utilized. Firstly, the Ã¢â¬Ë5 P modelÃ¢â¬â¢ implies that philosophies, policies, programs, practices and processes within strategic business relies on and represents the managements overall outcomes when considering survival, development, flexibility and profitability (Schuler 1992). These practices all rely in a cascading effect on each other therefore they take time. Secondly, the Ã¢â¬Ëcompetitive strategy and role behaviors modelÃ¢â¬â¢ links strategy with behavior. Unlike and instruction manual humans social interaction is one that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be mechanical. Therefore for this particular model HRM practices are an applicable in achieving proposed strategies. 6 strategies are identified as planning, staffing, appraising, compensating, training and development (Schuler amp; Jackson 1987). Thirdly, the Ã¢â¬Ëtwo stage modelÃ¢â¬â¢ is fundamentally inherent on a model of strategic management. The model argues that the rating of performance is made at the time of the observation of performance. Ultimately, this only considers a small portion of reality and therefore the rating can be manipulated and should not have significance in total performance. Hence suggestions imply that another stage be apparent to demonstrate consistent observations of performance and be stored therefore ratings either side can then be better judged, hence the two stage model. (Development and Test of the Two-stage Model of Performance Appraisal Charmine E. J. Hartel Strategic Human Resource Management can contribute to organizational performance in the next 5 years through identifying the internal and external factors. EXTERNAL FACTORS External factors such as legislation are the backbone of how responsibility is defined in human resources. HR professionals must be as up to date as possible and legislation as laws can change and ultimately effect performance, in this case, over 5 years. From a managerial point of view, keeping employees up to date and abiding by laws is critical to performance. Additionally, these professionals must also consider and must be familiar with legalization operating in other countries, particularly when they are responsible for expatriates and employees, who are working overseas. The management of equal employment opportunity (EEO) is also considerable when contributing to organizational performance over 5 years. For example, if people identify that they are not being treated equal, from income to social injustice in the workplace this can alter the flow of a business. Further, people could leave their job and this lack of consistency can ltimate in undesirable organizational performance. However, when EEO is purposefully implied within an organization it can ensure employees are treated with fairness and respect and further, secure and retain the best people for jobs. Again, contributing to long-term organizational performance. Any change in external factors cans ultimate in the impact of the construction of HRM procedures. INTERNAL FACTORS Opposed to external factors, internal factors include the dynamics within an organization. For example and for the purpose of this essay, culture. Organizational culture has a significant effect on HRM and how it is strategized. Culture is embedded in human interaction. HR is able to build their practices around a culture within an organization by observation and implementation. Culture can include any factors such as how the organization runs, beliefs and ideologies and further how the organization likes to be seen and thought of. When considering organizational performance over 5 years, the culture can have a very persuading or non-persuading effect depending on the HRM. For example, the vitamin company Ã¢â¬ËBlackmoreÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬Ë implies a high performing happy culture with bonus based incentives to match, Further, as the reader suggests BlackmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s also promoted a scheme based on performance to result in a Christmas ham. These ideologies that BlackmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s demonstrate are effective ways of that SHRM can contribute to organizational factors over 5 years. Taking into consideration the two contributing factors above, when applying this to organizational performance over the next 5 years, the following examples can justify these factors. It is clear that incorporating human resource management strategies and systems to achieve the overall goal and success of a company while meeting the needs of its employees and stakeholders is what needs to be done, the question is what are the challenges that are going to come from this over the next five years when relating it to the organizational performance. A vital issue when talking about internal and external factors is collaboration of culture. Organizational culture influences HRM immensely. HRM practices, which have een stated above, are able to contribute to the building and maintenance of organizational performance if thought out and adjusted into both internal and external factors. A good example is Google. The HRMG Unit outline identifies that GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is team orientated, collaborative, encourages people to think and to work with integrity, all of this entails working for the benefit of the company and ultimately for the benefit of the world. Further, i ts fundamental elements, which comprise these things, are clear recognition by the founders in relation to the type of culture they wanted to build. The significance of recruiting employees into their company who suited their culture is known. The process of finding these employees is time consuming and a demanding process however it is these steps, which contribute to success. Finally there culture is fun. It allows for Ã¢â¬Ëfree thinkingÃ¢â¬â¢ and imagination, which helps to build what they are going for. It sustains a small organizational feel, with a consistent culture, which allows the challenges of their organizational performance to be decreased, and therefore their success increased. In Conclusion Strategic human resource management contributes to organizational performance. This essay has discussed how Strategic human resource management contributes to organizational performance over the next five years, how through these determining factors; Identifying major principles within SHRM, Internal and external factors and finally, the two factors which resulted identifying an example Ã¢â¬ËGoogleÃ¢â¬â¢, that HRM can face when implementing organizational performance over the next five years.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Explain, providing appropriate examples, why car manufacturers are constantly introducing new models. Answer: The demand for car is increasing day by day as people are using this vehicle to cover a long distance within a short time. Hence, in both developed and developing countries, people are demanding cars as a necessary commodity. The principle concept of this essay is to analyse the reason that why producers of car are constantly introducing new models. There are various reasons behind this. Manufacturers are making new cars with new technologies to meet those criteria, which consumers are demanding. Hence, in this context, concepts of benefit of the consumers, costs of producers and market structure of the car industry are some important aspects, which should be discussed in this essay. New models with new designs and technologies can attract consumers. This concept also helps a car manufacturer to compete with other competitors. The chief way to analyse this situation is to observe various models, which are introduced by different leading car manufacturers and basic economic concepts t hat support this view. After analysing these concepts, it will be seen that some models have sold with a huge demand, whereas, some models could not compete in the market. Hence, at the end of this essay, it will be discussed that what kind of updates are required in future. As technology is improving day by day, the car manufacturers can also incorporate these innovations in their model. There will be different charts and diagrams, which will reflect the trend of a car manufacturer in the market. Automobile industry is rapidly expanding their business in recent years. Different car manufacturing companies are introducing new models of cars to meet the raising demand of customers. Customers expectations on a car are chiefly based on the quality, safety, utility and reliability. Producers are trying to introduce new models based on those criteria. At the same time, producers can earn higher level of profits by selling new models of car with high prices. However, at the same time, overcapacity has created pressure on the auto industry to control the price of vehicle. Due to environmental concerns, the chief agenda of a manufacturer is to look after various matters, like, emissions of tailpipe, production of carbon dioxide and recycling. One of the growing issues is urban congestion all over the world that effectively decreases the usage of cars among different cities. These challenges lead the auto industry to innovate and introduce new models of cars. General Motors of U.S made different types of cars based on different demands of their consumers. The chief focus of a car producing company in U.S is to look after the speed, safety and comfort of consumers. Moreover, suspensions, interiors, stylish bodies and chassis of cars are also some important factors to introduce new models of cars. Car manufacturers have earned major importance in the automotive industry, worldwide. They have taken some primary responsibilities related to development of products, manufacturing and engineering because of some critical systems in the industry. The automotive manufacturing industry in Australia has faced various difficulties for which it needs to introduce new models of cars. The reason behind these difficulties is that, in Australia, motor vehicle producers are not able to survive in a highly competitive world market and domestic automotive markets. Some well known car manufacturing industries, like, Ford, Toyota and Holden have declared that before 2017, they will ce ase local productions. The chief reasons behind producing new models of cars are benefits, costs and market structures, within an automotive industry. In this context, some articles related to economics can be analysed. These will help readers to understand the economical reason behind producing new models of cars. According to an economics paper of Safiullin, Ismagilova, Gallyamova and Safiullin, consumer surplus is an important concept of benefit. According to Alfred Marshall, a consumer is ready to pay price for a commodity or service, when he or she gets benefits from it (Safiullin et al., 2013). In an economy, a consumer can pay higher prices for a commodity if he or she gets higher benefits from the product. However, the market price can be lower than that price, which the consumer wants to pay. Hence, the difference between these two prices is called consumer surplus (Xie Lin, 2017). In this car manufacturing industry, the consumer can pay higher prices if they get higher benefits from the new mode l of car. Fig1: Consumer Surplus Source: (created by author) In the above figure, the difference between P1 and P0 is the surplus of the consumer. Here, a consumer can purchase a car by paying P1 price, if he or she will get higher benefits from that car. However, the market price is P0, which will be paid by the consumer. Hence, under this situation, a consumer can also get benefit through surplus. Cost is another important factor, which greatly influence any production process. Under an automotive industry, manufacturers are very concern about their cost pattern. There are various in built steps to produce a car. Production cost refers those cost, which a manufacturing industry bears at the time of production of a good or service (Farahani, Rezapour, Drezner Fallah 2014). This cost includes wages of labours, prices of raw materials, land rent, interest of capital, advertisement costs and general overhead. Moreover, any taxes imposed by the government are also considered as production cost. Hence, production costs include all expenditures related to production or creation of goods and services. Producers experience product costs, which are related to both the materials that require for creating an item and labour to create it. In an automotive industry, the direct production costs are materials that is, plastic, tire, metal materials and so on. Hence, it can be seen that, ther e is a huge cost burden of a car manufacturer to produce a car. Hence, they also charge a huge price for each unit of car. This leads to increase the price of that durable commodity. Consumers do not want to buy old models or new cars with same features with high prices. However, consumers can purchase cars with high prices if the manufactures make new models of cars with new features. New models with high demand can decrease the burden of cost of a producer. In this regard, an important point is needed to be mentioned. The point is that, when the cost of car manufacturing increases, the selling cost may also increase at the same time. Australia is one of the few countries that can design and manufactures cars with significant volumes (Andersson, Sderman Sandn, 2017). The Automotive industry of Australia can be divided into two parts, which are interrelated with each other (Malihi Shee, 2017). These are the production sector and sales sector of cars and both of them are equally important for this car manufacturing industry of Australia. Manufacturing sector implies the market conditions under which the manufacturing business of Australia operates. It produces vehicles and other products that are related to those vehicles and the chief motive of this industry is to make profit. On the other side, sales sector implies a market situation under which various car manufacturing industries compete with each other to sale their cars. However, it is very important to differentiate between these two market conditions as these two markets operate within two different market structures, competitions and business strategies ( Pisano, 2017). The only market structure, which can describe the manufacturing sector of the automotive industry in Australia, is oligopoly (Hashmi Biesebroeck 2016). There are chiefly two companies who produce cars in Australia. These are Ford and Holden. Hence, the method of competition and strategies related to price are based on the oligopoly criteria. In an oligopolistic market, level of competitiveness and profitability are highly correlated with each other. On the other hand, the selling sector of automotive industry is based on the market structure of monopolistic competition (Harrison, Rutherford Tarr 2014). All car manufacturing industries are based on product differentiation by making different models of cars. Hence, they try to sale their cars by using different technologies. Toyota Motor Corporation is a multinational automobile manufacturing company of Japan. It is one of the leading car manufacturing companies all over the world. The company has launched various models of cars since the beginning of their business. Some of the best selling models of Toyota since 2016 are Toyota Camera, Toyota Corolla, Toyota RAV4, Toyota Tacoma and Toyota Highlander. Fig2: Toyota Models Selling Amount in 2016 Source: ("TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE", 2017) In 2016, Toyota has dominated the car market of Australia. Three models of this company were included among the top five bestselling car companies in this country. Fig3: Sales Volume of Small cars in Australia in July 2016 Source: (Malihi Shee, 2017) The automotive industry of any country is vast and dynamic by its nature. Developing countries chiefly depend on their domestic automotive industries for the opportunity of economic growth as it has important linkages with other industries. The industry has gone through several stages. These are craft production, mass production and lean production. Under those stages, some small enterprises as well as large industries establish some standard products and business strategies. Ford and Toyota started a new line of production and design of cars. Under car production, mechanisation has been transformed since past century that was led by the fastest speed with lower costs. The mass production system of Ford lied on standard designs with fully automated and interchangeable auto parts. On the other hand, the lean production system of Toyota led productivity to a new dimension by introducing pull system instead of push system. That means, instead of producing huge amount of vehicles and pus hing them towards the dealer for selling, they started producing their cars based on consumers immediate demand. Product innovation or introducing of new models in the automotive industry has chiefly based on the demands of customers (Damert Baumgartner, 2017). However, product positioning is a vital strategic variable for any car manufacturer. General Motors started producing different types of vehicles for different product segments. It ended the market of Ford with low price model. The ability of product variation on different dimensions is the chief strategic variable of any automotive car industries. However, the chiefly responsibility of automotive industry in U.S.A is to make cars based on customers satisfaction (Eilert, Jayachandran, Kalaignanam Swartz, 2017). On the other hand, the automotive industry of Europe has focused on their chief attentions on performance and ability to move easily and quickly of their vehicles. These are radial tires with steel-belted, fuel injection, disc brakes and turbo diesel engines. In Japan, the automotive producers are trying to produce different typ es of cars because of their miniaturisation culture, scarcity of materials, fuels and space. Industrial innovations have taken place over the last few centuries. The manufacturers of car industry incorporated some critical components of production to minimise transaction costs related to late deliveries and products, which are not produced with exact specifications. Under the automotive industry, market rivalry is based on two strategic variables. These are quality and product variety on the one hand and transaction price to increase sales, on the other hand. Maintaining high level of customers repurchase rates is important for an industry to earn high profit. Hence, the car makers try to attract and keep their customers with them by innovating new features of cars. Therefore, product variation is the major important concern of all small and large size car industries. However, some auto makers are well known in a particular market segment, for example, Mercedes, BMW and so on. The hallmark that Japan makes in their car is reliability on turnkey. On the other hand, Ford, Toyota and Chevrolet have launched small and sporty cars for their buyers. Analysts of automotive industries argue that major geographical and organisational changes influence this industry to innovate new technologies and reconfigurations on the basis of demand, based on environmental concern (Wagner, Ortman Maxfield, 2016). Each car manufacturing company tries to capture the international market by selling their cars worldwide. Hence, they are trying to innovate new models that can be suitable for all countries. In conclusion, it can be said that car manufacturing industry is one of the largest industry and it can deeply influence the economic system of a country. The chief motto of a car manufacturing industry is to produce different types of cars with different facilities that can influence their customers positively and they can earn huge amount of profits. Demands of customers are the first priority for those industries. Hence they always try to innovate new models of cars with new technologies that can satisfy a consumer. Safety, comfort, stylish body are some basic features that each consumer needs. They can get consumer surplus if new model are introduced in the market with large number of features. Then, they can buy it with a higher price. At the same time, producers are trying to reduce their cost structure. New technologies, substitute materials with lower prices can reduce the cost burden of a car manufacturing company. On the other hand, market structure is also an important con cept which should be kept in mind. Different countries have different market strategies for automotive industry. The automotive industry operates their functions chiefly under a monopolistic competitive market. Hence, product differentiation is a very important concept. They can differentiate their products if they launce new models with different new technologies. Therefore, it can be seen that introducing new models of cars is very important for each car manufactures compete and stay within this industry. References: Andersson, M., Sderman, M. L., Sandn, B. A. (2017). Are scarce metals in cars functionally recycled?.Waste Management,60, 407-416. Damert, M., Baumgartner, R. J. (2017). Intra?Sectoral Differences in Climate Change Strategies: Evidence from the Global Automotive Industry.Business Strategy and the Environment. Eilert, M., Jayachandran, S., Kalaignanam, K., Swartz, T. A. (2017). Does It Pay to Recall Your Product Early? An Empirical Investigation in the Automobile Industry.Journal of Marketing,81(3), 111-129. Farahani, R. Z., Rezapour, S., Drezner, T., Fallah, S. (2014). 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