Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Madhu Babu. K, Contact me in 08105837859, Youth And Politics Youth are young generation of the country. They play a vital role in the development of country. A famous writer Sri Sri(Srirangam Srinivas)said that Ã¢â¬Å"Our country is not in the hands of lazy and corrupted old politicians,this country is ours i. e youthÃ¢â¬ . A country with good political government is said to be developed country. But politicians are misbehaving. They are mainly focussing on earning profits and neglecting development of people as welll as country. Everyone is telling that Ã¢â¬Å"Politics is corrupted. But politics is not corrupted. Politicians are corruptedÃ¢â¬ . Earlier common people are afraid of policemen. But now policemen are afraid of politicians. We want politicians like Shyam Prasad Mukherjee,Dr. B. R. Ambedkar,Abdul Kalam,lal Bahdur Shastry,Kamraj Nadar,Prakasam Panthulu etc. to eliminate corruption and also for development of country. Generally people used to tell Ã¢â¬Å"Youth is spoiled. But spoiled is PoliticsÃ¢â¬ . Youth should join hands to enter politics to protect our country from old orrupting politicians. Youth have the capacity to do anything. Youth should be encouraged to enter politics. This is possible only by educational institutions. A compulsoy subject about politics should be introduced in colleges to create a desire among young generation to enter politics. In olden days a child from every famil y will join military army to protect their kingdom. Similarly a student from each educational institution should enter politics to protect and develop our country. Ther are colleges for Engineering,Medicine,Management etc. Why canÃ¢â¬â¢t we have a college for politics? Everyone is telling that Educatin gives knowledge. Politics with knowledgabie youth will lead to development of the country. But youth are applying their knowledge in other fields. Every student/youth is telling that they will become Engineer or Doctor. But no one is telling that Ã¢â¬Å"they will become POLITICIANÃ¢â¬ . Though our country is said to be Democratic,it is in the hands of politicians and their families. The system of giving political seata to his/her relatives or family if he/she(politician) is dead should be changed. Some politicians are using Youth for illegal activities. So youth should be aware about them. Because of those politicians youth are also getting corrupted. For a stable government Youth should enter politics. Youth should not mingle with corrupted politicians. By giving opportunities to youth new ideas can be generated and better solutions can be obtained for complex problems. There is retirement for every job. But politicians are not following retirement. Hence a slight modification must be made in our constitution that Ã¢â¬Å"Any politician who are above 65 years must be retired from his positionÃ¢â¬ Though politicians with more age have experience and take better decisions the position should be given to his subordinates based on the experience after retirement of his/her post. Youth are voting at age of 18. Why canÃ¢â¬â¢t they show interest to enter politics by age 21? Youth should be given chance by all political parties to enter politics. A certain reservation in politics should be given compulsorily to youth in politics. Not only youth alone can develop country. But youth with some experienced Politicians will be helpful to develop country. Let us remember the words of Sri Rabindranath Tagore. He wrote in Ã¢â¬Å"GtanjaliÃ¢â¬ that he wants to see our country Ã¢â¬Å"as heaven where there is no ego hurtings,one person will not steal others,every person is happy and live happilyÃ¢â¬ . To make our country Ã¢â¬Å"Sujalm,Suphalam,MatharamÃ¢â¬ Youth should enter Politics.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
In this activity, I will be carrying out two interactions, one with an individual and one with a group of service users. For my individual interaction I have chosen to work with a service user from my workplace. I am a social tutor working with deaf and blind adults. I will take an activity with a group of young children in a local school for my group interaction. After these interactions have taken place, I will look at and discuss the types of communication skills shown, and I will also describe the interpersonal interaction that occurred. Communication with other people involves a process that most of us take for granted. We need to pass information using a form of code from one individual to another. A code is a communication system, which contains elements, which all individuals will understand. This could be verbal, non-verbal i.e. body language, Braille, sign language, writing, pictures or even music to convey a message (CCMS, 2006). We need to express our thoughts to another person using methods of communication. The other person thinks about our communication and responds. We then check the response, whether the communication has been correctly interpreted, and if not we need to clarify our communication. Gerard Egan (1986) states that Ã¢â¬Ëthe goal of listening is understandingÃ¢â¬â¢. (Moonie, 2005) see more:describe the impact the behaviours of carers and others may have on an individual with dementia I had chosen to work with a male service user, a resident at my workplace. I will refer to this service user as Mr A throughout this report, to protect his identity. This is important, as confidentiality is a basic human right. Law protects confidentiality through the Data Protection Act 1988, and the Freedom of Information Act 2000. Maintaining confidentiality also forms part of the Care Standards Act 2000, and staff in health and social care are expected to work within the boundaries of confidentiality. Before I undertook my individual interaction, I gave some thought to how I could get as much conversation as possible. Mr A has very limited sight and good hearing. He has a pair of glasses but does not like to wear them. He also has learning disabilities, which makes his ability to respond verbally quite difficult. As I know Mr A well, I will use informal conversation, also a formal interview would not be appropriate due to Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s conversational skills. Informal is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"without ceremony or formality; relaxed and friendly.Ã¢â¬ (Chambers, 2007) Taking this into account I thought of a few questions, which would be easy for him to respond to. I had open questions in my head, such as Ã¢â¬Ëwhat are you doing todayÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëwhat would you like for breakfastÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëhow was your eveningÃ¢â¬â¢. Using open questions, I hoped to encourage conversation and interaction between us. Closed questions, which only require a yes or no answer, would not be productive to this activity, however due to Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s disabilities I may have to use closed questions at times. As I have worked with Mr A for two years, I already have a good relationship with him. Mr A requires a lot of support with his personal needs, but likes to be as independent as possible. Talking to other staff, reading Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s care plan and observations I have made during the time I have worked with Mr A has allowed me to build up a good relationship with him, and knowledge of how he likes to communicate. I know when to offer support, and Mr A appears to like me. Mr A makes it quite clear when he is unhappy by shouting. On Tuesday 19th December 2006 at 9am I went to my workplace. The weather was dull and cold outside. Mr A was sat in his usual chair in the living room. He had his arms relaxed by his side, and one knee across the other. There was one other service user in the room, and the radio was on low. The radio is always on for Mr A; he likes to listen to either the radio or the television at all times. Another member of staff was also in the living room writing up paper work. The temperature was warm, the room was well lit but not too bright and the atmosphere was calm. Mr A appeared relaxed. My body language was relaxed, and I smiled and said Ã¢â¬Ëgood morningÃ¢â¬â¢ to Mr A, and he said Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢ in response. He shuffled around in his chair at little as he spoke to me. I sat in a chair in close proximity to Mr A so that he would be able to hear me clearly above any background noise, and know where I was location to him as he has very limited sight. Mr A needs a lot of help with his needs, and he is comfortable with carers in his personal space. I sat relaxed, with my body turned towards Mr A, my arms leaning across my knees. I made sure I looked at Mr A so when I spoke to him he would know I was making as much eye contact as possible. Mr A does not make eye contact with anybody, he tends to look down towards his knees and occasionally look up towards the centre of the room. Although Mr A was not making eye contact with me, I felt it important to maintain contact, as I may be able to guess his thoughts and feelings by looking at his eyes. Mr A settled back into his chair and his body posture was relaxed. With my voice at a calm slow pitch I said Ã¢â¬Ëwho is it Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢, Mr A said Ã¢â¬ËSarah been on days too longÃ¢â¬â¢. This is an affectionate term for Mr A. I responded with Ã¢â¬Ëyes I think it is time I had a holidayÃ¢â¬â¢ and Mr A laughed and said Ã¢â¬Ëits time you didÃ¢â¬â¢. I laughed with Mr A to show I found his remark amusing. He shuffled around a little in his chair again. I continued to talk to Mr A in a varying tone to ensure my voice sent a friendly message. I asked Mr A how he was feeling today and he said Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢. I asked him if he was feeling poorly and he said Ã¢â¬ËdidnÃ¢â¬â¢t say thatÃ¢â¬â¢, so I asked him if he was feeling well. Mr A responded Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢. By maintaining eye contact and looking interested, I assured Mr A that I was actively listening. Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s receptive language is very good however his expressive language is very limited. In order to find out something from Mr A I have to clarify what it is I want to know. By asking if he felt poorly or well first I knew from experience that Mr A would respond Ã¢â¬ËdidnÃ¢â¬â¢t say thatÃ¢â¬â¢ to the wrong one. I paraphrased what I had asked, reflecting back on the question to ensure I had understood what Mr A was telling me. I touched Mr A on the arm and told him that I was pleased he felt well. I felt touch was appropriate in this instance, however I recognise that this is not always the case. I asked Mr A if he would like some breakfast, and he responded Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢. He got up from the chair and made his way to the dining table. Mr A is very good at finding his way around the house and does not like being guided. By not intervening until Mr A asks for help, I am empowering him. This gives Mr A a feeling of confidence and higher self esteem. He sat down in his usual place. I asked him if it was ok to put an apron on him, he responded Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢ and lifted his arms up so I could tie the apron. It is important to offer choice to Mr A as this empowers him further. Mr A has muscle wastage in his right arm and has very little use of it. He eats well out of a specially designed bowl and a special spoon using his left hand. Mr A is unable to put cereal or milk into the bowl himself, or to spread toast or make drinks. He requires someone to do this for him. I asked Mr A what he would like for breakfast. Mr A responded Ã¢â¬Ënot muchÃ¢â¬â¢. This is a typical response so I asked whether he would like Weetabix or Shreddies. This again ensured Mr A had a choice. Mr A answered Ã¢â¬ËWeetabixÃ¢â¬â¢. Mr A will most often copy the last thing a person says, so I encourage his responses by saying the cereal he has every morning first. After Mr A had finished his Weetabix I asked him if he would like any toast and he said Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢. I then asked Mr A if he would like marmite on his toast. Mr A responded Ã¢â¬ËdidnÃ¢â¬â¢t say thatÃ¢â¬â¢ and shuffled around in his chair, indicating to me that he was not very happy. His body language became defensive as he turned away from me. With my voice at a calm slow pitch I asked Mr A if he would like jam on his toast (which he always has) and Mr A said Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢. I used this tone of voice to calm the situation. Mr A then relaxed and turned back towards the sound of my voice. The questions used at this point were closed because I know that Mr A has little expressive language so at times this is unavoidable. I thought I would offer Mr A a drink at this point so I asked him what he would like to drink. Mr A answered Ã¢â¬ËteaÃ¢â¬â¢, so I went and made him a cup of tea. After he had finished the tea he stood up and made his way to the kitchen with his cup. He removed his apron and held it out to me. I asked Mr A what he wanted me to do with the apron and he responded Ã¢â¬ËrubbishÃ¢â¬â¢ so I took the apron and threw it in the bin. Mr A then made his way back to his chair in the lounge. He sat down and crossed his legs, tapping his foot to the song on the radio. I sat back down in the chair close to Mr A, again with my body posture relaxed. I asked Mr A if I could turn off the radio and talk. Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s muscle tone became rigid and he started shouting Ã¢â¬ËthatÃ¢â¬â¢s stupidÃ¢â¬â¢ over and over again. I waited a moment until he calmed down and stopped shouting, and then, using a calm, quiet tone of voice, I said Ã¢â¬Ëwe can talk with the radio on lowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Mr A responded Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢. I asked Mr A what he had done yesterday evening. Mr A did not respond, so I waited a few moments before I asked if he had been busy yesterday after tea. Mr A said Ã¢â¬Ënot muchÃ¢â¬â¢. I asked him I if he had been out and he said no. I asked him if he had listened to the TV or the radio, Mr A answered Ã¢â¬ËTV timesÃ¢â¬â¢ which means he listened to the TV. Mr A was shuffling gently in his chair as he spoke to me and he seemed very relaxed. He uncrossed his legs and crossed them the other way so he was facing towards me even more. I was still sat in the same relaxed position, with my arms resting on my knees, turned towards Mr A as much as possible. I asked Mr A what he would be doing today, again Mr A responded Ã¢â¬Ënot muchÃ¢â¬â¢. I asked him if he was going out and he said Ã¢â¬ËdonÃ¢â¬â¢t know about itÃ¢â¬â¢, I said to Mr A that he would have to think about it and see how he felt later. I told Mr A that I was going to put my feet up for the rest of the day and do no work. Mr A laughed at me and said Ã¢â¬Ëshe does that sometimes!Ã¢â¬â¢ I asked Mr A if he had enjoyed talking to me this morning and he answered Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢. I touched Mr A on the arm again and said goodbye. Mr A responded Ã¢â¬ËYeahÃ¢â¬â¢ and continued to tap his foot. I felt the interaction went very well. Mr A responded very well in conversation, and I feel that was due to the factors involved. The location was quiet, warm and calm. Mr A was seated in an environment he is very comfortable with. Mr A appeared comfortable with the proximity, that is, the fact I have to be very close to him, in his personal space. This is due to his personal difficulties, and his need for support with a lot of his personal needs. As he is quite an elderly gentleman, he has relied on carers being very close to him and helping him do things his whole life and seems very comfortable with this. If the support offered to Mr A is more than he wishes for, he quickly becomes very angry. At no time did Mr A appear to be unhappy with the support I gave him. During the interaction, Mr A was not able to see my body language due to his visual disability, however I sat close to him and faced him at all times so he would be aware that I was listening fully. Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s body language was good throughout most of the interaction, he leant towards me and his muscle tone was relaxed. My body language was relaxed throughout the interaction, both when seated and when assisting Mr A with his breakfast. Mr A does not use hand gestures when he speaks, mostly due to his muscle wastage in his right arm. At one point when I asked him if he would like marmite on his toast, he exhibited a little negative body language by turning away from me. When I suggested turning off the radio Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s muscle tone became very rigid and he shouted at me. This was an indicator that Mr A was very unhappy with the suggestion and wanted the radio left on. The radio was turned down low and did not hamper the conversation in any way as we could clearly hear each other. My conversation with Mr A was informal. This is because I know Mr A very well so do not need to speak to him in a formal manner. I gave Mr A appropriate lengths of time to respond to my questions, and I listened carefully to his answers. By giving Mr A time to respond to my questions, I ensured that he had time to think about what I was asking, and formulate the correct response. I followed up by responding to his answers with appropriate further conversation. At one point I had to clarify a question by changing it from asking Ã¢â¬Ëwhat he had done yesterday eveningÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬Ëif he had been busy yesterday after teaÃ¢â¬â¢. By asking the question in a different way I was checking that Mr A had fully understand what information I required from him. This in turn encouraged Mr A to respond when maybe he did not wish to, or maybe did not understand the question. Mr A is a person who likes to be as independent as possible. He appreciates when I understand his needs and what he is trying to tell me. Throughout my interaction with Mr A I used empathy at all times. Empathy is Ã¢â¬Å"a personÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of the emotional state of another person and their ability to share an experience with themÃ¢â¬ (Richards, 2003, p.121). I was aware of Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional state and my ability to build an understanding. On two occasions I touched Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s arm briefly to show friendliness and compassion. I feel Mr A was very responsive to our interaction and I was very happy with how it went. I think that given Mr AÃ¢â¬â¢s verbal disabilities I engaged him in a good conversation, listened well and used correct techniques to aid this. I also provided him with the correct amount of support during his breakfast. The other staff member present in the room was my deputy manager. I asked her to complete a witness statement for my to say I had completed an interaction with Mr A. She agreed to this. I also asked her for feedback on the techniques I had used, and how she felt the interaction went. She told me that I had engaged Mr A well. When Mr A is listening to the radio he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always want to talk. He responded that he was happy to talk to me with the radio turned down low. She said Mr A appeared very relaxed and seemed to enjoy talking to me. He was also happy to go to the dining table and let me assist him in getting some breakfast. When asked, Mr A said he had enjoyed talking to me. He also appeared to be happy with the support I offered him when getting his breakfast. As he can become angry quite easily when offered too much support, I also felt this was good feedback.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Girl powdering her neck - Essay Example The essay "Girl powdering her neck" concerns The painting Ã¢â¬Å"Girl Powdering her NeckÃ¢â¬ . The figures of women that he portrayed through his art served to provide them with a voice in a society where they were often marginalized and oppressed. UtamaroÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings serve to show women in their positions of vulnerability and seek to show the forces of the society that place them in these positions of vulnerability. The painting Ã¢â¬Å"Girl Powdering her NeckÃ¢â¬ is one where the reflection of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s face assumes the centre stage on the canvas. The vulnerability of a woman in the society is revealed through the depiction of a frail and delicate woman who is grooming herself so as to maintain her beauty, her only asset in a masculinist and patriarchal society. The painting shows the reflection of the woman and thus serves to remind one that what is seen of a woman in public is often nothing but her reflection. Her real self is never revealed to the world because of the constraints of the society which frames her in a mirror and confines her identity to her physical self. Utamaro questions this structure if the society and talks of how it would be possible for women to come out of their cloistered existence only if they were given the chance to express their real selves. What Utamaro does, ironically, confines the woman within a painting without giving her an alternative existence. The poem Ã¢â¬Å"Girl Powdering Her NeckÃ¢â¬ , talks of this very inability of the woman to break out of the moulds that were made for her.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Management communcation - Assignment Example on the cultural considerations for doing business in Japan, as per your request, we established that Japanese companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ appraise upholding harmony and excellent reputation with customers and the community in general. Of all facets of handling the Japanese, communication complexities cause the biggest dilemma. Exceptional distinction and subtlety typifies Japanese communication. Where how an individual appears, what he or she publicly states and what he or she thinks are frequently poles apart. In essence, it is challenging for a foreigner to understand these baffling paradoxes. Needless to say, everything should be inquired to assure achievement of clear understanding. In reference to Locker and Kiensler (2010), Japanese treasure sitting in silence and calmness (p. 132). In times of difficulty or stress in meetings, Japanese recourse to sitting in silence to release nervousness in the room and give room for people to move away from the difficulty. In addition, the Japanese minimally use body language. This makes an untrained observer to understand. Japanese use body language to indicate attributes such as respect, confidence, agreement, interest and emotional participation. Though eye contact is an indication of attention, Locker and Kiensler (2010) denote that the Japanese show respect by lowering their eyes when speaking to superiors (p. 132). Though Japan is a small country, with a dense population, it encourages cohesiveness and politeness. This helps them avoid conflicts and uphold harmony. From the research, we established that Japanese are naturally group oriented. At the beginning of a new day, many firms in Japan have a group meeting aimed at building harmony and team spirit, and employees can do calisthenics together. A Japanese group identifies the sources of problems in the firm and tries to solve it as a team. Culturally Japan values patience, politeness, hard work, honesty, affiliation and team work. Different cultural settings have different
Saturday, July 27, 2019
CAUSE AND EFFECT - Essay Example It is also possible that one of these two people might tell others who would further tell the remaining staff that is working within the organization and hence the gossip can turn really nasty at the end. Having informal gossips in the workplace suggests that the employees are not concentrating properly on their assigned tasks and the bosses take particular note of this fact. They mention these points to the employees who like to gossip a lot and also warn them from time to time so that the gossip within the workplace is reduced drastically. The effects of this workplace gossip are that the employees have a bad image within the organization and they are not taken in high esteem. They are also told of concentrating on their own duties rather than wasting their times on having useless gossips all the time. Workplace gossips also mean that the employees have lost a lot of interest in their work and they do not find their job challenging enough. The employers should provide comfort to these types of employees by changing their job nature or making their job focus a bit more different. They can also be delegated work in a different manner so that they feel at ease with the working methods . The employers generally do not like the employees who gossip a lot and are always suggesting some ways as to how they can control this problem. They find different means and ways through which workplace gossip could be reduced. It is a fact that employees are also humans and they need to talk to each other because after all a workplace is essentially not a jail but the restroom is one such place where they can hold their conversations. Even in lunch time they can chat over in an informal manner but when they are at their desk and doing work then that means work is everything and gossip holds no place within the office boundaries. Similarly, plants and
Friday, July 26, 2019
Tax Planning Problem - Assignment Example This is because in case of alimony, tax is charged to the party who receives the benefits of income and thus is nondeductible to the party earning that income (Cussen, Investopedia.com). In this regard, NellÃ¢â¬â¢s gross income and thus her taxable income would be increased by that amount as Nell is receiving the benefits of KirbyÃ¢â¬â¢s income. 3) Out of $900, only the amount of $600 is considered as alimony. This is because this amount canÃ¢â¬â¢t be declared as child support since continuation of this amount is not pertinent to any contingency related to child in terms of his death or attaining the age of maturity (Cussen, Investopedia.com). As a result, being alimony, this will reduce KirbyÃ¢â¬â¢s taxable income and increase NellÃ¢â¬â¢s taxable income, each by $600. On the other hand, the remaining $300, to be ceased after any contingency to the child, can be declared as child support and thus, not being alimony, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t account for any tax-related consequence to any of the party; neither of the party would recognize this amount in his / her taxable income. Works Cited Cussen MP. Ã¢â¬Å"The Fundamentals of Spousal Support Taxation.Ã¢â¬ Investopedia.com. Investopedia, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2011.
Employment laws for business - Case Study Example 2. In this situation Alvin does not have a strong claim for age discrimination. The police department prefers to utilize younger officers. This is for the safety of other officers as well as the safety of the general public. Moreover, the department does not require Alvin to retire. However, many employees choose to retire at the age of 50 this is no where stated as a requirement. Although Alvin's job description has changed he was given a suitable replacement. In addition Alvin was not asked to take a pay cut or work other hours. Although Alvin may not be satisfied with this new position it is in the best interest for society. 3. Carter does not have a claim for age discrimination based upon the facts given. The company needed to lay off employees due to economic downfalls. Layoffs during poor economic times are often an option utilized by employers. Unfortunately there is nothing the company can do in regard to the economic situation. Carter will be eligible for unemployment as the company has not debated this claim. Moreover, Alvin has only been with the company two years.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Western Civilization Vs their Colonies Civilization - Essay Example Western Civilization Vs their Colonies Civilization The main objective of this essay is to deliberate on the claim without biasness and give backing of the arguments with documented information. Other sectors argue that science and technology become the rulers of the world rather than agriculture and survival; is this civilization or modernization2. Humans have been in existence for over a million years yet civilization is only 5000 years old. According to Global Hegemony and the rise of technology3, technology becomes a necessity for economic requirements and this seems to support the claim of the western Europeans that they were more civilized. According to Carlyle, industrialization becomes the victory of man over nature. To an extent this purported claim and made the British feel superior that others and imposed their beliefs on others. As their technologies grow the European forcibly put down others civilizations if they did not agree to their ways. This put a pose or question mark on the civilization claim of the European since civilization is supposed to be a good thing why forced others. The approach of the western European to force other on civilization brought more question on their intent than purpose. The European has assisted in the transportation system, communication and other aspect of technology; however, they borrowed the concepts from others such as Asians and even some from part of Africa such as Egypt. This borrowing makes it difficult to whole heartedly give the Western European all the credits about the civilization in their colonies. Iraq, India, China, Egypt, Central America and then the Barbarian West are all credited for the civilization growth in the world. Why would Western European claim that they were more superior yet they borrowed their technologies? It is in order to conclude that they were more civilized; however, wrong to purport that others were uncivilized. The civilization the European claim so much is a bout the development of cities; however, civilization is broader than the cities and claiming technologies overtook agriculture and survival negate the definition of civilization. The above arguments do not dispute the claim that European were civilized than their colonies but emphasize the understanding of civilization. Further more, it their give a chance to reflect between civilization and modernization4. The two are clearly different one is based on technology advancement the other focuses more on the living jointly and cooperatively. A swing had happened as an effect of the industrial revolution. Asian civilizations, like China, Africa civilization, like Egypt and other civilizations, which were once considered impressive and steady5. European countries or nations viewed the earth or universe through the aspect of technology and disregarded any consideration for civilization. As their technology advanced, Europeans expanded to other nations in order to spread their superior ideas and inventions. When civilization is considered in regards to Afric a; Western European were more advanced technology wise. The European considered Africa culture as devoid of technology and primitive. If Africa had the resources as the Western or other nations would they be considered primitive? Opportunities and resources facilitated the civilization or technology advancement of the Western6. When we consider the definition of
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
MCA Denver - Essay Example 2). The museum hosts exhibitions throughout the year and is an ideal meeting place for visitors and art enthusiasts to interact with the artists. Image 1: Fancy Work- Colonial Wall Sconce Currently, the MCA Denver museum is hosting an exhibition entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Allison Smith: Piece Work,Ã¢â¬ which is a compilation of sculptures, braided rugs, and paintings by the noted Oakland-based artist (Ã¢â¬Å"Allison Smith: Piece Work,Ã¢â¬ par. 1). The artist has been praised for encouraging group participation with the visitors to learn the art of making braided rugs while they engage in discussions about the ancient wars. The artist has shown altruistic attitude by encouraging the public to learn arts and crafts, while sharing opinions about the brutal nature of war that leaves nothing but wounds, scars, and fatalities. One of the most conspicuous pieces of artwork by Allison Smith shows Ã¢â¬Å"Fancy Work- Colonial Wall Sconce,Ã¢â¬ which is a brilliant handmade wall sconce comprising steel, blown glass, acrylic mirror Plexiglas, and mixed media (Ã¢â¬Å"Allison Smith: Piece Work,Ã¢â¬ par. 3). The colors used in the braided rug pattern are appealing, and the mirrors reflect the light falling on their exotic placement.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Classmates Evaluation - Personal Statement Example Donald Brown: At first, Donald seems to be just an ordinary classmate with nothing really special about him. However, as time went by I notice a characteristic which sets him apart from a typical student. Different from the rest of us, I can say that he has deep sense of responsibility making him punctual in submitting individual requirements and his tasks for group projects. Arosha Desilva: Arosha is one of a kind and deviates from my expectations of what a typical guy should be like. First of all, he disproves my misconception that organization is out of a man's vocabulary. Seeing his lecture notebook and handouts for the first time, am amazed at how systematic he can be. Second, I always thought women should be nurturing and men should be authoritative. But not with him-having him in my group is an honor because he was always there to support me especially at times when I am losing my confidence. His calm personality enables him to manage stress and helps me focus on the job at hand. This trait stood out while we were on the process of writing the report and juggling it with our other individual requirements. Lastly, who says all guys are more tech savvy than girls Well, everyone has his own set of strengths and weaknesses. Computer skill is definitely not of Arosha's strong points. Sean Detorres: Sean Sean Detorres: Sean is someone I can never forget in this class. I admire him for his helpfulness and sincerity. Being on the same team as a compiler with him, I have seen how transparent he is with his feelings. Among my group mates, there have been instances that Sean and I have dissenting opinions about matters. I have to admit that I sometimes find his opinion rather irrational and unprofessional. I do appreciate how Sean shows his true feeling of disagreement on me, because it made me realized my flaws. However, I do wish Sean could have come up and talk with me in person and let me know what he is experiencing from me instead of just showing his dislike. I am thinking that maybe he is not just that vocal and has problems verbally communicating his feelings and emotions thus, he just resort on showing them. This is a room for improvement for him. I believe that he should work on his communication skills in order for him to effectively and professionally deal with his colleagues. Joshua Feng: I can say that Joshua has two good points-he is very smart as well as very articulate. During the class, he has been able to show his knowledge and skills in tackling different topics. I believe that these capabilities are really exceptional. I have noted that even though some people are smart, they do not have the capacity to share what they know. This is not the case with Joshua-he s knowledgeable and is very willing and articulate to communicate what he knows. However, I should also add that he is lazy and like to procrastinate at times. Well this can be justified by his efficiency and adeptness which enables him to tackle tasks in no time. When he starts doing his work, I am amazed how at fast and well written he is. Without his laziness, I am sure he will become a influential leader.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Internet Essay Many people fear the Internet because of its disadvantages. They claim to not use the Internet because they are afraid of the possible consequences or are simply not interested. People who have yet connected to the Internet claim they are not missing anything. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s technological society must realize that it is up to them to protect themselves on the Internet. Children using the Internet have become a big concern. Most parents do not realize the dangers involved when their children connect to the Internet. When children are online, they can easily be lured into something dangerous. For example, children may receive pornography online by mistake; therefore, causing concern among parents everywhere. Whether surfing the Web, reading newsgroups, or using email, children can be exposed to extremely inappropriate material. To keep children safe, parents and teachers must be aware of the dangers. They must actively guide and guard their children online. There are a number of tools available today that may help keep the Internet environment safer for children. Musicians are also concerned with disadvantages to the Net such as, accessibility and freedom. They are upset because the Internet provides their music online at no charge to consumers. File-sharing services, such as Napster, provide copyrighted songs to all Internet users. The main concern is the music is free! Musicians feel they are not getting paid for their work. Because of Napster, it is almost impossible to close down all file-sharing services because there are too many of them to count. Another major disadvantage of the Internet is privacy. Electronic messages sent over the Internet can be easily tracked, revealing who is talking to whom and what they are talking about. As people surf the Internet, they are constantly giving information to web sites. People should become aware that the collection, selling, or sharing of the information they provide online increases the chances that their information will fall into the wrong hands. When giving personal information on the Internet, people should make sure the Web site is protected with a recognizable security symbol. On the other hand, this does not mean they are fully protected because anyone may obtain a userÃ¢â¬â¢s information. In other words, the most common Internet crimes are frauds. Today, not only humans getting viruses, but computers are also. Computers are mainly getting these viruses from the Internet, yet viruses may also be transferred through floppy disks. However, people should mainly be concerned about receiving viruses from the Internet. Some of these dangerous viruses destroy the computerÃ¢â¬â¢s entire hard drive, meaning that the user can no longer access the computer. Virus protection is highly recommended. Despite all of the terrible disadvantages of the Internet, there are numerous advantages. In fact, the advantages weigh out the disadvantages. The most common thing the Internet is used for is research. Children and students are among the top people who use the Internet for research. Nowadays, it is almost required that students use the Internet for research. The Internet has become one of the biggest sources for research. Almost everyday, research on medical issues becomes easier to locate. Web sites have become available for people to research diseases and talk to doctors online at sites such as, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Doctor. Entertainment is another popular reason why many people surf the Internet. Downloading games, going into chat rooms or just surfing the Web are some of the uses people have discovered. There are numerous games that may be downloaded from the Internet at no charge. Chat rooms are popular because users can meet new and interesting people. In fact, the Internet has been used by people to find life long partners. When people surf the Web, there are numerous things that can be found. Music, hobbies, news and more can be found on the Internet. Another popular thing to do on the Internet is to check out the news. Almost all local news can be obtained through the Internet. Up to date sports scores are probably the most popular looked at news. Sports scores are updated on the Internet as soon as the game ends. Weather is also a popular source to look up on the Internet. Using the Internet to get the weather allows people to view weather all over the world. Live radar all over the country and local forecasts are just to name a few of the things that may be obtained for weather information on the Internet. Shopping online has also become a huge success and is considered a great advantage of the Internet. No matter what people are shopping for, it can be found on the Internet. People do not even have to leave their homes. A few companies have collected millions of dollars using the Internet for selling. Clothing is probably one of the most bought items online. Almost every major clothing store has its on Web site. In fact, In US, people can even go grocery shopping online using such sites as Priceline.com. Just one click of the mouse on the items they want to purchase and the items are delivered to their front door. Unfortunately, this kind of service is not yet available in Malaysia for the time being. Groceries and clothing are only a few of the items that may be bought on the Internet. In conclusion, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is in the middle of a technological boom. People can either choose to take advantage of this era, or simply let it pass them by. The Internet is a very powerful tool. It has many advantages; however, people need to be extremely aware of the disadvantages as well.
Ã¯ » ¿Personal Discovery Essay Overview Essay This essay is intended to guide the student from identifying a problem or situation, taking some action in regard to the situation, and writing about the experience while supporting/developing their evaluation/analysis with two primary sources. A General Overview: First, you will be given a professionally-generated article that addresses a particular topic. This semester, the topic will involve health risks. Second, you must decide upon an activity after reading the article. For instance, since the article you will be given is on health risks, you will will need to identify two activities you can perform that will effect the consequences of your chosen health risk. Third, you will write a first draft of an essay of about 750 words (three pages) in which you discuss the activities and what motivated you to choose those activities, followed by your reactions and responses (such as Ã¢â¬Å"What did I learn?Ã¢â¬ And Ã¢â¬Å"Why could it be valuable to me?Ã¢â¬ ) Fourth, find an article in the Three Rivers Rutland Library data base which provides additional information or that either refutes or corroborates what your rough draft says. Ideally, this one will help you determine the best practices for avoiding or managing the health risks. Incorporate information in the form of direct quotation and paraphrasing according to MLA style into the final draft. Finally, prepare a final draft of the paper in which you analyze the experience and the article, then synthesize all of the information into a cohesive essay. This essay will be the final assignment of the semester, so it is important to do your very best work. The final essay shuold be of 750 1,000 words, not including the correct MLA-style Works Cited page. Short Writing Assignment #7 Instructions: Read and study the information from the following web page: http://www.myhealthnewsdaily.com/839-top-10-leading-causes-of-death.html Download the Article Close Reading template (located in the Assignments: Unit 5 folder) Complete the template through a close reading of the article. Minimum Requirements: Completed Article Close Reading document for Top 10 Leading Causes of Death by Rachael Rettner. Since you have used this template before, take into account any suggestions or comments I provided you with to make sure you make the fullest use of the template possible. DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE Attached Files: Article Close Reading Document.docx (15.785 KB) Short Writing Assignment #8 Instructions: Choose two activities which you can do over a period of a few consecutive days which may prevent your death or the health-related consequences for you from the chosen malady. Make sure you think about the activities you choose to give before you decide. They should be planned, not spontaneous events. Once you perform your activities, notice the immediate effects and think about their long-term value. How did you feel when performing your activities? Were your activities difficult? How did you feel after the experience? Sit down and write about the experience while it is still fresh in your mind. Minimum Requirements: Compose a 200 300 word reflection on your activities. Make sure you clearly identify your chosen health malady and the activities you performed in the context of your reflection. Personal Discovery Essay First Draft Instructions: Using the following outline, compose a rough draft of your Personal Discover Essay. . INTRODUCTION:Mention the article and author. Give the briefest summary of the main points that relate to your paper. As you agree or disagree with the ideas, a thesis should develop. PERSONAL:Why did you choose to do these particular malady and activities? Were they the most convenient, the most inconvenient, or did they involve activities that had been on your mind, for example? How did you feel when you anticipated the activities, before you actually performed them? ENVIRONMENT:Identify your activities. What exactly did you have to do? Give some detail about this so the reader can imagine how much (or how little) was done. REACTION:What was yourÃ reaction? How did you feel, both physically and mentally, after performing your activity? Did this surprise you? Have you had other experiences where youÃ¢â¬â¢ve changed your actions, or added activities, based on your health decisions? If so, how did this reaction compare to that experience? INTERPRETATION:Consider this experience in light of Rettners article. How do you think her numbers would change if everyone took these activities seriously? Do you think there is a significant chance others will follow your lead? Will you continue to perform these activities in the future? Do you think others are likely to do so? Why or why not? CONCLUSION:Tie the essay together, reiterating your thesis, perhaps mentioning Rettners article one more time. Make a statement about health activities, predict what would happen if more of us were required to try to improve our health, or discuss how we would be affected if we expected more healthy living activities of ourselves. Try for a fresh and original ending to this essay. Minimum Requirements: Write the first draft of an essay of about 750 words in which you discuss what you did and what motivated you. Part of the essay should discuss the article and your feelings about it, while it should also include your reactions and responses Personal Discover Essay Instructions: Find an article in Three RiversÃ¢â¬â¢ Rutland Library database that provides additional information or that either refutes or corroborates what you said in your first draft. The article may discuss public service, student character, or any other aspect of your essay. Incorporate the information from your new article into the final draft of the Personal Discovery Essay. The final draft should demonstrate your ability to analyze the experience and what was read and then synthesize the information into a cohesive essay. Minimum Requirements: A final draft of the Personal Discovery Essay which syntheses of the genesis article, first hand information gathered in real time, and a supporting document located in the database into a single essay of 750-1000 words. In addition the the essay, you should include a correct MLA-style Works CitedÃ page containing citations for the Rettner article, as well as the database article. Apply the scientific and healthcare professionalsÃ¢â¬â¢ advice and expertise to craft an essay of Personal Discovery which uses both your day-to-day altered habits and the science that backs them up in an essay which incorporates the best practices of our three major essays this semester
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Do parents have an influence over child delinquency? To what extent do parents have an influence over their children becoming delinquent? There have been an increasing number of stories in the media regarding children and their increasing tendencies to crime. High profile crimes such as the Jamie Bulgar murder and shootings in universities across America have sparked a high level of controversy and research into what actually makes a child delinquent. There have been a number of factors which have been associated with child delinquency such as the individual child, peers, school, neighbourhood, the media and one which has received a huge amount of attention is parents and family. This essay will be looking at the extent to which parents have an influence over there children becoming delinquent. It will explain reasons and ways in which parents influence there children into delinquency through lack of for example discipline, and a variety of other factors. It will then go on to examine other factors such as the individual, peers and school, which may contribute to a child taking the path of crime and will evaluate how much influence this has on a child. The US dept of justice created the office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention (OJJDP) which formed a study group on very young offenders to examine the prevalence and frequency of offending in children under the age of 13. This study group identified a number of risk and protective factors which were crucial in developing early intervention and protection programs for very young offenders. It found that some aspects of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour such as temperament are established during the first five years of life. This foundation coupled with childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to certain risk and protective factors, influences the likelihood of children becoming delinquent from an early age. Risk factors are things which are most likely to pull a child into a life of crime. There are three types of risk factors; static, dynamic and protective. Static risk factors are those which are historical and cannot be changed such as age at first offence and prior criminal history. Dynam ic risk factors are those which are changeable these are things such as substance and alcohol abuse. Lastly protective factors are those which mediate and moderate the effect of exposure to risk factors. This is usually done by reducing the risk of exposure to crime, reducing negative chain reactions which means to deal with a delinquency problem identified in children from an early age rather than letting it spiral out of control. Another protective factor which should be instilled in children is establishing self esteem and self efficacy this in addition to opening up opportunities to them will reduce the calling of crime as they will have other things to keep them occupied and realise there are a number of things which they can do t broaden there horizons. However the identification of these risk factors have been difficult to pinpoint but it remains imperative to distinguish as these factors are essential to developing interventions to prevent child delinquency from escalating into chronic criminality. There area number of studies which were done in both the UK and the US to ide ntify risk factors which are associated with a child turning to crime. The Cambridge Study of Delinquency was a longitudinal survey of the development of offending and antisocial behaviour in 411 males first studied at age 8 in 1961 Ã¢â¬â at that time they were all living in a working-class deprived inner-city area of South London. It found eight different factors which contributed to children turning delinquent these were; low income family, large family, poor parenting, below average intelligence, parent with criminal record, impulsivity, antisocial behaviour, socio-economic deprivation and coming from a Ã¢â¬ËbrokenÃ¢â¬â¢ home. A youth lifestyles survey which was carried out in the UK also identified eight different risk factors which are associated to a child turning to a life of crime these are; drug use, alcohol abuse, low interest in school, being bullied, lack of qualifications, delinquent peers, poor parenting and a lack of appropriate space for children to be in. According to the OJJDP study group on very young offenders, a group of 39 e xperts on child delinquency and child psychopathology convened by the OJJDP, risk factors for child delinquency operate in several domains: the individual child, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s family, peer group, school, neighbourhood and the media. This again corresponds with the findings of the Cambridge study which found compared with the un-convicted men, being a persister was predicted by having a convicted parent, high daring, a delinquent sibling, a young mother, low popularity, large family size and a disrupted family. Compared with the un-convicted men, being a desister was predicted by having poor housing, a convicted parent, high daring, low junior school attainment, low nervousness and a disrupted family. The large majority of those who were first convicted at ages 10Ã¢â¬â13 (91%) or 14Ã¢â¬â16 (84%) did not give up offending after the first offence. They continued offending (according to convictions) for an average of 13 years. Those who started at 10Ã¢â¬â13 years had an average of nine convictions; those who started at 14Ã¢â¬â16 had an average of six. In contrast, the average for those who were first convicted at age 17 or older was much lower at around two convictions each. This shows us that the younger the offender starts the longer there career in crime. The results by the OJJDP also correspond with the results found in the Youth Lifestyles survey. Most professionals agree that there is no single risk which leads a child to delinquency rather the likelihood of early juvenile offending increases as the number of risk factors and risk factor domains increases. While parental delinquency is not the whole answer to juvenile delinquency, it is one of the major factors in this problem. The notion of protective risk factors is one which parents are largely associated with. Traditionally it is the role of the parents to protect and harbour there children from a life of crime and deviance. However this is not always the case. There is wide belief that single parents are highly likely to have delinquent children for a number of reasons such as economic conditions which are inherent to single-parent families may place children at greater risk. Socialization of children residing in single-parent families may differ from those residing with two parents and may have a damaging effect on the child as well as they type of neighbourhoods, in which single parents often reside. Lastly the ways in which the system or officials from formal institutions such as school, police, and courts respond to children from single-parent homes may result in these children being more likely to be identified as delinquent. There is consistently a positive relationship between marital discord an d delinquency. Children who witness marital discord are at greater risk of becoming delinquents. Social learning theory argues that aggressive behaviour is learned; as parents display aggressive behaviour, children learn to imitate it as an acceptable means of achieving goals. However, most children who witness marital conflict do not become delinquent. A healthy home environment, one in which parents and children share affection, cohesion, and involvement, reduces the risk of delinquency. Parental rejection appears to be one of the most significant predictors of delinquency. Not only does parental attachment to children influence the likelihood of delinquency, but apparently so does the attachment of the child to the parent. This dual relationship implies an interaction between characteristics of both the parent and the child. A healthy home environment is the single most important factor necessary to keep children from becoming delinquent. Current positivist approaches generally focus on the cultural and socio-economic environment to which a young person has been exposed, and how these conditions may be criminogenic. These theories de-empathize the fault of the individual, and stress criminal behaviour is largely determined by factors out with a young personÃ¢â¬â¢s control. Social ecology or social disorganisation theory says crime is generated by the breakdown of traditional values and norms. This was most likely to occur in urban areas with transient populations and high levels of migration, which would produce the breakdown of family relationships and community, competing values, and increasing impersonality. Children who are inadequately supervised by parents who fail to teach them right and wrong, who do not monitor their whereabouts, friends, or activities, and who discipline them erratically and harshly are more likely to become delinquent. Marital discord is a more powerful predictor of delinquency than divorce or single-parent family structure. Family relations, not just the separation, influence delinquency. Abuse directly affects the child, yet the link between abuse and delinquency is not as strong as the link between rejection and delinquency. Abused children tend to manifest more problematic and aggressive behaviour than children who are not abused, but some abused children withdraw, become self-destructive, or focus their reaction inward. Other children show few behavioural effects of abuse. Being abused increases the chances of delinquency, but most abused children do not become delinquent. Research on causes of delinquency makes a major contribution to the understanding of the interaction of the family and delinquency. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s predisposition toward impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial behaviour may initiate a process within the family that ultimately leads to delinquency. Parents of a difficult child may stop parenting to gain peace within the home and may come to reject the child. Antisocial patterns established within the family may be exacerbated and reinforced as the child enters school. As the child enters adolescence, delinquent acts may further weaken the youthÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment to family, school and conventional ties. Whilst it is true that society does have a role to play in the upbringing of children in the sense of providing a social environment in which to bring up a child but it is clearly the role of the parent to mentor, advise and guide a child through to their adulthood. No child has it easy, but it is true some are worse off than others and as a result of being disadvantaged in some way. But there is also another class of youngster, one without discipline and respect in their life, one without a strong guide in their life which ensures that the child stays on track and in the right direction in their life. These are the roles of parents and a society which attempts to divorce parents from this responsibility is only asking for more trouble. The role of a parent, is to watch, to guard, to mentor, to guide, to create a home environment suitable for a young person, but the role of a parent is to also educate a young person in their role in society. It is a clear deficiency of a parent, when a young person goes off the tracks. Therefore the question must be asked whether parents can, through effective socialisation, prevent delinquent behaviour among there offspring? In addition to affection, three elements appear to characterize positive parenting that is normative regulation, monitoring regulation, and discipline. The quality of supervision is consistently and strongly related to delinquency. Parents must adequately monitor their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, whereabouts and friends. They must reliably discipline there children for antisocial and prohibited behaviour, but must do so neither rigidly or severely. It helps if they assist their children in problem solving, negotiate conflict and model pro social behaviour. Less is known about the link between parental attention to normative and moral development and subsequent delinquency than many other topics of family life. However research appears to indicate that delinquency is more likely when normative development is incomplete, and when children are unable to distinguish between right and wrong, feel little or no obligation to standards of behaviour, and have little respect for the rights and welfare of others. Parents play a critical role in moral development. A variety of family circumstances have been identified as contributing to the delinquent behaviour of children. Children who are rejected by their parents, are inadequately supervised, and grow up in homes with considerable conflict are at greatest risk of becoming delinquents. The presence of any one of these family circumstance factors increases the chances of raising a delinquent child. The addition of more than one factor further enhances the odds of misbehaviour. There appears to be a cumulative effect such that the presence of more than one of these negative family attributes compounds the likelihood of delinquency. Not all children follow the same path to delinquency; different combinations of life experiences may produce delinquent behaviour. Finally positive parenting practices during the early years and later in adolescence appear to act as buffers, preventing delinquent behaviour and assisting adolescents in desisting from further delinquent behaviour. In addition to parents having an influence on children becoming delinquency there are a number of other factors to consider such as the effect of school on children. A negative effect from school can impact the progression of delinquency developing in children. Failure to bond to school during childhood can lead to delinquency. In addition, as stated above, early neurological deficiencies, when combined with the failure of family, school, and community to provide adequate socialization, lead to early-onset offending that persists throughout life. A specific school risk factor for delinquency is poor academic performance. A meta-analysis of more than 100 studies examined the relationship between poor academic performance and delinquency and found that poor academic performance is related to the prevalence, onset, frequency, and seriousness of delinquency (Maguin and Loeber, 1996). In young children ages 8 to 11, academic performance has been related to serious later delinquency (Loeber et al., 1998). Even when individual intelligence and attention problems are taken into account, academic performance remains a predictor of delinquency. Children with weak bonds (low commitment) to school, low educational aspirations, and poor motivation are also at risk for general offending and for child delinquency (e.g., Hawkins et al., 1998; Le Blanc, CotÃ ©, and Loeber, 1991). It is likely that children who perform poorly on academic tasks will fail to develop strong bonds to school and will have lower expectations of success. As a result, academic achievement and school bonding are, in many ways, interdependent. For example, one study found that boys who engage in delinquency are less committed to school and are also more likely to have Ã¢â¬Å"shorter plansÃ¢â¬ for their schooling. These boys described themselves as bad students (Le Blanc et al., 1991). In addition to school fellow classmates and peers can also have a negative impact on a child. Peer influences on child delinquency usually appear developmentally later than do individual and family influences. Many children entering school, for example, already show aggressive and disruptive behaviours. Two major mechanisms associated with peer factors or influences are association with deviant peers and peer rejection. Association with deviant peers is related to increased co-offending and, in a minority of cases, the joining of gangs. Related to strain theory is subcultural theory. The inability of youths to achieve socially valued status and goals results in groups of young people forming deviant or delinquent subcultures, which have their own values and norms. (Eadie Morley: 2003 p.552) Within these groups criminal behaviour may actually be valued, and increase a youthÃ¢â¬â¢s status. (Walklate: 2003 p.22) The notion of delinquent subcultures is relevant for crimes that are not economically motivated. Male gang members could be argued to have their own values, such as respect for fighting ability and daring. However it is not clear how different this makes them from Ã¢â¬ËordinaryÃ¢â¬â¢ non-lawbreaking young men. Furthermore there is no explanation of why people unable to achieve socially valued goals should necessarily choose criminal substitutes. Subcultural theories have been criticised for making too sharp a distinction between what is deviant and what is Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢. (Brown: 1998 p.23) There are also doubts about whether young people consciously reject mainstream values. (Brown: 1998 p.23) Since a 1931 report showing that 80 percent of Chicago juvenile delinquents were arrested with co-offenders, empirical evidence has supported the theory that deviant peer associations contribute to juvenile offending (Shaw and McKay, 1931). The unresolved question is whether deviant peers model and reinforce antisocial behaviours or whether the association with deviant peers is simply another manifestation of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s predisposition to delinquency. In other words, do Ã¢â¬Å"birds of a feather flock togetherÃ¢â¬ or does Ã¢â¬Å"bad company corruptÃ¢â¬ ? The theory of Differential association also deals with young people in a group context, and looks at how peer pressure and the existence of gangs could lead them into crime. (Eadie Morley: 2003 p.552) It suggests young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers, and learn criminal skills from them. (Eadie Morley: 2003 p.552) The diminished influence of peers after men marry has also been cited as a factor in desisting from offending. (Graham Bowling: 1995 p.4) There is strong evidence that young people with criminal friends are more likely to commit crimes themselves. (Walklate: 2003 p. 2) However it may be the case that offenders prefer to associate with one another, rather than delinquent peers causing someone to start offending. (Graham Bowling: 1995 p.49) Furthermore there is the question of how the delinquent peer group became delinquent initially. The Study Group found that a strong case could be made that deviant peers influence Non-delinquent juveniles to become delinquent. For example, according to data from the National Youth Survey on a representative sample of U.S. juveniles ages 11 to 17, the most frequent pattern was a child moving from association with non-delinquent peers to association with slightly deviant peers, and then on to commission of minor offences. More frequent association with deviant peers and more serious offending followed, leading to the highest level of association with deviant peers (Elliott and Menard, 1996; Keenan et al., 1995). Deviant peers influence juveniles who already have some history of delinquent behaviour to increase the severity or frequency of their offending. A few studies of children younger than 14 support this hypothesis. For example, in a study of Iowa juveniles, involvement in the juvenile justice system was highest for those who engaged in disruptive behaviour and associated with deviant peers at a young age (Simons et al., 1994). The Study Group concluded that deviant peers contribute to serious offending by child delinquents during the period of their transition to adolescence. Although an extreme form of association with deviant peers, gangs provide a ready source of co-offenders. Not surprisingly, gang membership reflects the highest degree of deviant peer influence on offending. The Rochester Youth Development Study, the Denver Youth Survey, and the Seattle Social Development Project have all shown that gangs appear to exert a considerable influence on the delinquent behaviour of individual members. Juveniles are joining gangs at younger ages, and the role of gangs in crimes committed by youthful offenders appears to be an increasing problem (Howell, 1998). In the case of violence, even after accounting for other risk factors (such as association with delinquent peers who are not gang members, family poverty, lack of parental supervision, and negative life events), gang membership still has the strongest relationship with self-reported violence (Battin et al., 1998). Lastly a focus on the individual is required when looking into factors associated with delinquency. Not everything can be blamed on parents as there is a large element of the child themselves which make them more predisposed to following a path of delinquency. Classical criminology stresses causes of crime lie within the individual offender, rather than in their external environment. For classicists offenders are motivated by rational self-interest, and the importance of free will and personal responsibility is emphasised. Rational choice theory is the clearest example of this approach. It states that people weigh up the pros and cons of committing a crime, and offend when the former outweigh the latter. A central deficiency of rational choice theory is that while it may explain when and where people commit crime, it canÃ¢â¬â¢t explain very well why people choose to commit crimes in the first place. Neither can it explain differences between individuals and groups in their propensity to commit crimes. James Q. Wilson said the conscience and self-control of a potential young offender must be taken into account, and that these attributes are formed by parental and societal conditioning. Rational choice does not explain why crime should be committed disproportionately by young people, males, city dwellers, and the poor. (Walklate: 2003 p.2) It also ignores the effect a, young persons peers can have on them, and the fact that some youths may be less able to accurately foresee the consequences of their actions than others. Rational choice theory does not take into account the proven correlations between certain social circumstances and individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ personalities, and the propensity to commit crime. If we study the characteristics of those processed by control agencies, and if we accept that they are representative of all delinquents, we may conclude that the typical juvenile delinquent is different from his peers in a number of ways. That is to say that there are a number of traits which are significant predictors of delinquent activity. Some of these traits appear to be fundamental personality factors hyperactivity, tendency to alcoholism, psychosis, low measured intelligence, small stature and poor health and being male rather than female. There are also some significant characteristic modes of social interaction which make the individual more prone to delinquency such as bad temper, unpopular with peers, disruptive behaviour in school, parents found him a difficult child, likely to be violent and poor work and bad results at school. Lastly backgrounds are important in determining whether a child will follow a path of delinquency and a career in crime. These factors include environmental, living in a slum area, living in an area of high delinquency, social class, father unskilled labourer, poor surveillance, irregular discipline, lack of affection, family interaction characterised by antisocial behaviour, family breakdown and poverty. These young people are recognized as being difficult by parents, other children and teachers. The onset of these problems was very often early in the childs life, and the first steps into delinquency were often taken as early as 9 or 10 years old. A significant implication which, has been highlighted is that bad behaviour is a general trait. Robins and Ratcliff (1980) have shown that each separate type of childhood deviance (hyper-activity, conduct disorder, bed-wetting, etc) is independently correlated with the overall level of adult deviance. Each separate type of adult deviance is predicted by the overall level of childhood deviance. The overall level of childhood deviance is a better predictor of adult deviance than any one particular childhood behaviour. These relationships do not depend on the continuation of the same behaviour from childhood into adulthood. Variation in the kind of bad behaviour manifested is more a function of age than of character. Focus on risk factors that appear at a young age is the key to preventing child delinquency and its escalation into chronic criminality. By intervening early, young children will be less likely to succumb to the accumulating risks that arise later in childhood and adolescence and less likely to incur the negative social and personal consequences of several years of disruptive and delinquent behaviours. Child delinquency usually stems from a combination of factors that varies from child to child. No single risk factor is sufficient to explain it. To develop effective methods for preventing child delinquency and its escalation into serious and violent juvenile offending, intervention methods must account for the wide range of individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Some effective intervention programs that focus on reducing persistent disruptive behaviour in young children have reduced later serious, violent, and chronic offending. Some interventions focus on parent behaviours that increase the risk of persistent disruptive behaviour in children. Peer relations training and school/classroom programs have also shown some promise. Still, many gaps exist in our knowledge about the development of child delinquency, the risk and protective factors that contribute to it, and effective prevention and intervention methods. Addressing these gaps offers an exceptional opportunity to reduce overall crime level. Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria | Essay Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria | Essay A challenge for modern medicine Antibiotic resistance is a serious matter which should be addressed seriously. Every time you take antibiotics you dont need you increase your chance of contracting an infection that is caused by bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. And if you get an infection that cant be treated by antibiotics you run the risk of your infection getting considerably worse and you might need to be treated in hospital. There are many factors affecting as to how antibiotic resistance acquires but one thing is for sure, it must be stopped! At present antibiotic resistant poses as a massive challenge for modern medicine. There is a wide variety of conditions that antibiotic resistance stands in the way of successful treatment like tuberculosis (TB) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). As we know TB is a disorder affecting the lungs and also the rest of the body. It is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis and it is reported that a third of the worlds population has been infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis. New infections occur at a astonishing rate of one per second. The proportion of people who become sick with tuberculosis each year is stable or falling worldwide but, because of population growth, the absolute number of new cases is still increasing. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination(http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/index.html) Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in multi-drug-resistant TB. In a scientific journal titled Tuberculosis resistant to isonazid and rifampin published in 1993 it was concluded that patients with tuberculosis that is resistant to isonazid and rifampin often didnt succomb to the best treatment available and that failure to obscure this reistance would end in high mortality rates and a gloomy reality for the public (Goble et al) . In the case of Staphylococcus aureus where, like tuberculosis, it has grown resistance to its most of its treatment. Staphylococcus aureus is very difficult to treat if contracted due to its high resistance rate to a group of antibiotics called beta-lactams. This group of antibiotics includes penicillin, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, clindamycin and vancomycin.There are different treatments for different variations of the disease but treatment isnt straight forward due to the high rate of antibiotic resistance. In a scientific report titled High prevalence of multidrug-resistant MRSA in a tertiary care hospital of northern India, where they were testing the resistance percentages of the known antibiotic treatments on a group of 783 patients, they found that nearly all the antibiotics that were tested, there was a high rate of resistance. For instance, from the 783 patients isolated who had staphylococcus aureus, 301 (38.44%) had shown to be methicillin-resistant, of which 217 (72.1%) were found to be multidrug-resistant. Practically all MRSA strains were showing resistance to penicillin, 95.68% showed resistance to cotrimoxazole, 92.36% showed resistance to chloramphenicol, 90.7% showed resistance to norfloxacin, 76.1% showed resistance to tetracycline, and 75.75% had shown resistance to ciprofloxacin. The antibiotic showing the least amount of resistance was vancomycin with 0.33%. (Hare Krishna Tiwari et al). How bacteria become resistant The actual way in which a bacteria strand becomes resistant is usually a mutation in a chromosomal gene of the pathogen. Whiles a organism is being treated by specific antibiotics, the antibiotics will have an effect on 99.99% bacteria but not the bacteria that have undergone mutation that prevents a certain antibiotic having an effect on these bacterial strands will reproduce and by the theory of natural selection predicts that under these circumstances, the fraction of the bacterial population carrying genes for antibiotic resistance will increase. For example, a mutation in one gene may stop or reduce the pathogens ability to transport a particular antibiotic into the cell. (Jane B. Reece). There are quite a few practices effecting as to how bacteria strands become resistant to antibiotics. One would be the unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics from doctors to patients, but there is a lot to be said about this whether it be the patient feeling they are too sick to be told that they do not require the use of antibiotics even though they could just have a viral infection which antibiotics would be of no use to them unless it were to relief their pain or that they just want their moneys worth in antibiotics. Another cause to do with the doctor patient relationship would be the fact that the doctor would be unsure of what to prescribe if need be or just how much to prescribe! There is also this looming fear for doctors that the patient might wish to make a lawsuit against them for not taking action on their symptoms or not prescribing the right medication to them first time round and therefore doctors can be prescribing antibiotics out of fear of lawsuit. Also, many practitioners who earn by means of selling medicines often prescribe more drugs than necessary for means of profit (Holloway 2000). Another major factor that promotes bacteria to become antibiotic resistant is that when people do get prescribed the right medicine or antibiotics is that they dont take the right amount each day. Some believe that it is better to take one antibiotic a day rather than two (Kardas P, March 2007) and others feel that it is ok to stop taking them when their symptoms have gone or that they will save them for the next time those symptoms occur. Its funny to actually hear that a third of people still believe that antibiotics are effective on the common cold (McNulty CA et al, August 2007). In hospitals, poor hygiene can be associated with the contraction of noscomial infections and increase the risk of substaining a resistant microorganism, one of these well known noscomial infections is MRSA. Medical staff in hospitals world wide have been urged to wash their hands inbetween viewing patients and not to wear jewlery like wedding rings, bracelets or chains of the sort as these can transmit the infection from person to person (Girou E, Legrand P, Soing-Altrach S, et al October 2006). Much has been done in hospitals to stop the spread of noscomial infections but the treat still lingers with a massive one in seven chance of picking up a noscomial infection. Another factor as to how we can contract resistant bacteria is by the food we eat. Farmers feed their livestock antibiotics for numerous reasons but the fact is if and when their livestock build resistance to the antibiotics, they are then killed and processed into meats and other sources of food and they become our food. They may tell you your daily requirements for calories, vitamins, calcium, iron etc. but they do not tell you that your food could be the source of your illness or the reason why certain antibiotics will not have an effect on you!
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Evolution of the Internet Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã So you believe Al Gore created the Internet? Well thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not possible, because I did. Yes, itÃ¢â¬â¢s true, a few years ago I was sitting in my basement with nothing to do and suddenly the idea came to me: why not create an inter-connected network of networks that will allow users to send mail instantly, download copyrighted songs, and order pizza, all from the comfort of their own living room? OK, so maybe I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly invent the Internet, but neither did Al Gore. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã So who was the genius behind the information superhighway, you ask? Well letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a step back to the sixties, a decade when Cold War tension caused nationwide fear of nuclear warfare. Early in the decade, two groups of researchers, privately owned RAND Corporation (AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading nuclear war think-tank) and federal agency ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), grappled with a bizarre strategic mystery: in the event of nuclear war, how could political and military officials communicate successfully? It was obvious that a network, linking cities and military bases, would be necessary. But the advent of the atomic bomb made switches, wiring, and command posts for this network highly vulnerable. A Ã¢â¬Å"nuclear-safeÃ¢â¬ network would need to operate with missing links and without central authority. In 1964, RAND CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s Paul Barran made public his solution to the problem. Essentially, the concept was simple. BarranÃ¢â¬â¢s network would be assumed to be unreliable at all times. Information would be broken into many small pieces called Ã¢â¬Å"packetsÃ¢â¬ and then sent to various points, or nodes, in the network until they reached their destination. ARPA embraced BarranÃ¢â¬â¢s idea for three reasons. First, if nuclear bombs blew away large components of the network, data would still reach its destination. Second, it would be relatively secure from espionage, since spies tapping into parts of the network would be able to intercept only portions of transmissions. Lastly, it would be much more efficient because files and transmissions couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t clog portions of the network. Only five years after Barran proposed his version of a computer network, ARPANET went online. Named after its federal sponsor, ARPANET initially linked four high-speed supercomputers and was intended to allow scientists and researchers to share computing facilities by long-distance. By 1971, ARPANET had grown to fifteen nodes, and by 1972, thirty-seven. ARPAÃ¢â¬â¢s original standard for communication was known as Ã¢â¬Å"Network Control ProtocolÃ¢â¬ or NCP. As time passed, however, NCP grew obsolete and was replaced by a new, higher-level standard known as TCP-IP, which is still in use today.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Antisemitism Ã¢â¬Å"If the Anti-Semites want to hate, let them hate, and let them all go to hellÃ¢â¬ -David Ben-Gurion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Anti-Semitism in the Encarta dictionary is defined has a behavior discriminating against Jewish people that harm or discriminate against Jewish people. This definition does not even scrap the surface of what the word Anti-Semitism means to you if you are Jewish. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Anti-SemitismÃ¢â¬â¢s major part was to give Jews a bad reputation of being subhuman and threatening the purity of the German master race. The Nazis also propagated false claims such as the supposed role of Jews in the Ã¢â¬Å"stab in the back,Ã¢â¬ betrayal of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Army that led the Versailles Treaty with its loss territory and large reparation payments. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the postwar years, Germans suffered runaway inflation and massive unemployment. The National Socialist Workers (Nazi) Party was just one of the many racist groups that sprang up. Hitler soon became most effective anti-Jewish leader. His anti-Semitic blueprint was set out in the book Mein Kampf, and after he assumed power in the 1930's it became official policy. Although opposed to Christianity, Hitler used it in his antisemitic message. He wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"If... the Jew is victorious over the peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men. Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the creator: By defining myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã With writings like this and speeches with mass crowds Hitler gave, it is no wonder the majority of Europeans accepted HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s views. If he did not brainwash his followers, he scared them to death to go against him. Hitler would have his soldiers come into your home and demolish it if they thought you were against them or were hiding Jewish families. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The result of Europeans acceptance (or better called brainwash) to the brutality of the Jews caused the mass murders of millions of innocent Jews. The were not only were Jews murdered but they were tortured, beaten, and humiliated before death. We all know the stories of the Jews and it will and can never be forgotten. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I believe similar attitudes exist in our society today. (Read Letter attached). It is a follower of Hitler today expressing is hatred towards Jews.
The Lewis and Clark expedition across the present day United States began May 14, 1804. With the approval of President Jefferson and the U.S. Congress, Lewis and Clark gathered an exploration party of about four dozen men. These men headed off to discover Western America. On September 1, 1805, they arrived at the Bitterroot Mountains, near present day Idaho. This began a nightmare that would not end until they reached modern-day Weippe. September 1, 1805, the explorers set out traveling west, heading into rough, seldom traveled, mountainous country. They stopped at todayÃ¢â¬â¢s North Fork of the Salmon River, known as Fish Creek to Lewis and Clark, where they caught five fish, and were able to kill a deer (MacGregor 125). Some of the menÃ¢â¬â¢s feet and horseÃ¢â¬â¢s hooves were injured due to the rough, rocky terrain. The next day, they were entering mountains far more difficult to pass than any American had ever attempted (Ambros 284). Clark describes the route: "ThrouÃ¢â ¬â¢ thickets in which we were obliged to cut a road, over rocky hillsides where horses were in perpetual danger of slipping to their certain distruction and up and down steep hillsÃ¢â¬ ¦" (De Voto 232). Traveling along the steep hills, several horses fell. One was crippled, and two gave out. Patrick Gass described the trip that day as, "Ã¢â¬ ¦the worst road (If road it can be called) that was ever traveled" (MacGregor 125). To make conditions even worse, it rained that afternoon, which made the trail even more treacherous. The party was only able to travel five miles that day. On September 3, snow fell and the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s last thermometer broke. Several more horsed slipped and injured themselves. Later that day, the snow turned into sleet. The expedition family consumed the last of their salt pork and fish and began their descent into the Bitterroot Valley. That night, was the coldest yet. The next day, the party went down a very steep descent to a river that Le wis named, ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s River, (Today known as The Bitterroot River.) There, they encountered a band of Salish Indians, whom the captains called Flatheads. They stayed there with the Indians the next couple of days to trade. They acquired thirteen new Appaloosa Horses, including three colts, for seven worn out horses. The Salish Indians shared berries and roots with the men for their meals. On September 6, they set off traveling northward along the Bitterroot River for about ten miles.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Car pooling, also known as ride-sharing or lift-sharing, can save you big bucks on gas, wear and tear on your vehicle, oil resources and reduce all the associated nasty environmental impact associated with your driving. The benefits of carpooling are many. If you are currently driving every day, youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to save money on your commute costs by carpooling. In some cases, depending on the length of your commute and the number of days you donÃ¢â¬â¢t drive, the savings can be significant. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll endure less stress on your commute. Finally, by driving less youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be helping to keep the air clean. First, car pooling saves you big bucks on gas by, instead of you and your friend, cousin, or relative both taking different cars and you both are going to the same place, you both can take the same car and share the gas money instead of taking your own cars and paying much more gas money. Couple months ago gas prices were going up, I think that people are deciding to car pool more so they can save big bucks on gas. Also, rather than you and your buddy or cousin both adding mileage on your cars you both can just go together and add mileage to one of your cars instead both cars. This can also lower the risk of car accidents that happen on the road if there is less cars being used. If you and your friends car pool then you guys need to always plan the times because no one want to be late to work or any other place you have planned. Car pooling also has big responsibilities because the driver has to be on time to take the friend or buddy to work and also has to be on time to pick that person up. Second, another thing that car pooling is good for is that it keeps the environment and air much cleaner. One example of this would be is rather than two car engines working at once and putting a lot of nasty pollution in the air you could take one car and keep the air half cleaner. If car pooling goes in effect and many people decide to do this then there will be less cars on the road which will leave much less traffic jams. Also, this will make it easier for the road construction workers if there is less cars on the road because then they could work more and get there job done earlier. Finally, car polling is good because it leaves much more parking places in many crowded areas. One example of this would be is that when students go to school in the morning it is usually hard to find a parking place because they are all taken by other students cars but if a couple of friends used on car then this will leave much more parking place for others. Statistics show carpooling is very safe. However, you must keep your personal safety in mind. If you are considering carpooling with people you do not know, you should meet with them in person before hand. This meeting will serve two purposes. First, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a chance to discuss your ideas on setting up a carpool without obligating yourself to do it. Then, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to assess your comfort level with the people. Ask questions and trust your instincts. If you are not comfortable with that person then just tell them you have decided not to carpool anymore. If you known the person your carpooling with than that is much easier for you to be comfortable with them but also carpool with people you trust because your putting your life in there hands by being the passenger and letting the driver control the vehicle because anything can happen on the road and one example of this would be an accident. I think in my opinion that carpooling is good because it saves you big bucks on gas, helps you keep your wear and tear on your vehicle less, and it also helps the environment out by putting less pollution in the air. I always carpool with my friends because of these reasons, but remember pick right carpooling partners or partner that you trust and are comfortable with before you start to carpool with them.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
PRINCIPLE OF charge SEMESTER drib 10 FINAL REPORT smell LOCATION NATIONAL BANK OF PAKISTAN HEADOFFICE holdoff instruction PREPARED BY Nash Jinia 4456 Sarosh Ejaz 5050 Irfan Ali 5129 Jehanzaib 4591 SUBMITTED TO MAM gold RAZA COURSE ID 10108 DATED 14th zero(prenominal)EMBER,2010 hedge OF CONTENTS S. NO PARTICULARS PAGE NO. 1 Ack forthwithledgments 2 2 An run agrounding NBP 3 3 Vision and flush 4 4 bursting charge and st straygical Values 5 5 NBP organisational Structure & leaders 7 6 jampack Analysis 10 7 Questions and Answers 12 8 Our Findings 17 9 Why work at NBP? 24 0 Conclusion 25 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We lolly with the name of eitherah, the more or little beneficent, the most merciful. We convey Him for giving us the soulnel and options to stipulationinated this task as He gives each. We would analogous to thank Mr. Jamil Akhtar (AVP Logistics Wing) who kindly referred us to diametric discussion sections. We would overly worry to thank tot sol elyy the staff members of the bailiwick edge of Pakistan ( designate comp starnt part), who gave us most of their valuable fourth dimension to resoluteness either the questions we had regarding their trade line and work of the HR division and alike for providing us with such(prenominal)(prenominal) accurate existledge of their g eachplacenance particularly Mr.Mohib-ur-Rehman (Manager Employee talk). We would likewise like to thank our instructor and guide, Mam Amber Raza for giving us the query occurics as our final term report, which gave us the fortune to move forward and re depend the signifi bunst world scenarios and the working(a) of the constitution in the prevalent sphere of influence which benefitted us solely the more us existence BBA students, and, with whose guidance we were able to spew unneurotic all in all the teaching necessity in forming this report.AN INTRODUCTION NBP home(a) jargon of Pakistan is the largest commercialized patois operating in Pakistan. Its end sheet size surpasses that of both of the offprintwise wedges percentageing locally. It has re de sop upate its power and has moved from a public sector organisation into a modern commercial money box. The argots returnss be available to psyches, bodied entities and establishment. mend it continues to act as desireee of public funds and as the agent to the State Bank of Pakistan (in places where SBP does non defend a presence) it has diversified its barter portfolio and is today a major realise be givener in the debt rightfulness market, unified enthronement lodgeing, retail and consumer brinking, farming(a) patroniseing, treasury go and is showing growing s take up in promoting and beneathdeveloped the rudes small and me tier enterprises and at the self corresponding(prenominal) time ful forgathering its complaisant responsibilities, as merged citizen. In todays free-enterprise(a) business environs, N BP motivatinged to redefine its manipulation and shed the public sector shadowert image, for a modern commercial believe. It is straightway listed in the Karachi Stock supervene upon. home(a) Bank of Pakistan is today a progressive, efficient, and guest concentrate institution. It has developed a panoptic dis comfortably-nighrank of consumer convergences, to grow business and cater to the contrasting segments of society. Some schemes m a nonher(prenominal) been specifically k immediatelying for the low to middle in return segments of the population.These complicate NBP Karobar, NBP rising Salary, NBP Saiban, NBP Kisan Dost, NBP bullion n Gold. A imprint of portas use up been taken, in call of institutional restructuring, channelizes in the field social organisation, in policies and procedures, in congenital control systems with special accent mark on corporate goernance, adoption of non bad(p) Adequacy Standards d holdstairs Basel II framework, in the up gradation of the IT infrastructure and victimisation the serviceman resources. subject field Bank of Pakistan has built an panoptic break up ne iirk with 1250 offset printinges in Pakistan and ope pass judgment in major business centre ab channel. interior(a) Bank has earned recognition and legion(predicate) awards transnationally. It has been the recipient of The Bank of the twelvemonth 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005 represend by The Banker Magazine, the Best Foreign Ex diverge Bank Pakistan for 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007, global pay, Best emerge Market Bank from Pakistan for the family 2005, Global Finance, Kissan Time gifts 2005 for NBPs function in the trim d give field.It is listed amongst the Regions largest slangs and to a fault amongst the largest confideing comp some(prenominal)ing concerns in S divulgeh Asia 2005, The Asiatic Banker. It has alike been presented a Recognition Award 2004 for having a Gender Sensitive vigilance by WEBCOP AASHA be sides tenderly(prenominal) awards. Year 2007 has yet been an unseasoned(prenominal) out(p)standing year with the brim take d makeing the mellowedest profit in its history. NBPs wide range of product offerings, large branch earnings and attached workforce ar or so of our inherent strengths that enabled NBP to achieve special subjects in a very militant market. VISION AND MISSIONTo be recognized as a draw and a brand synonymous with trust, soaringest beats of service quality, international dress hat practices and social righteousness. NBP entrust aspire to the look ons that betray NBP au sotically the Nations Bank by Institutionalizing a moral excellence and exploit finis Creating a distinctive brand identity by providing the highest standards of go Adopting the scoop out international instruction practices Maximizing stakeholders assess Discharging our responsibility as a dear corporate citizen of Pakistan and in countries where we operate. MANAGE MENT AND STRATEGIC value As told by Dr. Mirza Abrar Baig, Senior closing maker Vice President crowd oldtimer, HR Administration) The focal point ag conference as a only(prenominal), and each member of it, has clearly defined responsibilities and the necessary authority to manage the underwriter in a demeanor self-consistent with the strategic direction authorize by the supervisory board. alone members of the instruction police squad up argon required to arrange their duties with callable c ar and diligence, and for the purpose of maintaining the in originalrs capacity to see to it its obligations to all yieldparties and constituencies at all time.Members ar free of existent conflicts of interest that could unduly influence their judgment. Where focus is constituted as a oversight board, no non-executives should be part of the heed board. The NBP team found that the focal point teams of the restitution companies be professional, with clearly defined res ponsibilities and adequate authorities to fulfill their duties. Boards of directors (i. e. the management boards) consisted sole(prenominal) of executives. forethought shoot adequate clevernesss and hold in relation to insurance, finance and other disciplines relevant to the management of an incertain(p)r.All members of the management team perk up admittance to sufficient resources and imbibe sufficient reading to assist them in the surgical offset of their roles. The management of the major NBP bevel appears to be highly professional and demonst rank sufficient skills to fulfill their duties. The NBP team did not re mess the management of the small locally-owned rims that ar not members of the wedgeing association. NBP is ceaselessly transforming its image and customer cognition as a modern depository financial institution through with(predicate) branch renovation and movement to more convenient and accessible sites.The team at trading operations crowd commi ts itself to change the face of the Bank by fashion of improving its physical out attend to, rough-and-ready execution of instrument of its systems controls and the quality of service yieldd to its customers. Improving working(a) efficiency is produceting more centering addicted the contests creation set some by the industry. With opening of customer facilitation centers for the collection of value bills and do payments to pensioners, the bank expects to reduce its counter traffic at branches thereby cerebrate more on its customers business needfully. customer c argon is a make bea of the bank and sundry(a) pedagogy ancestry of studys retain been conducted for employees to mitigate customer manipulation and interaction. supernumerary Assets Management conclave is to begin with prudent for monitoring and settlement of non acting loans (NPLs) portfolio. With NPL coverage of more than 76% we conceive that non playacting loans good deal contri besidese serviceously in the banks advantageousness through recoveries and settlements. Rising non- do loans has been an industry wide phenomenon and imputable to adverse economic accompanimentors, NPLs change magnitude by 26% or Rs. 4. 5 billion. We believe that most of the NPLs atomic number 18 the result of business cycle / circumstantial defaults and with the sparing picking up and reduction in interest rates the quantum of non-performing loans is expected to decline. We atomic number 18 conserveing our staunch focus on recovery and reduction in non performing loans is the ara of longest attention. The bank literally values its staff and the vital role they play in successful institutions. The bank gives special attention to attracting, developing and retaining good quality charitable resource.Our youthful hiring of top class MBAs as Management Trainees mappingrs (MTOs) and search for endowment at bottom the Bank prolong religious serviceed in preparing second and third tier leadership lines. Female Empowerment was launched to sit womanly employees and impact communities by championing the hunting expedition of womens empowerment in the society. now, NBP is obdurate in pursuing the policy of placing womanishs on responsible for(p) and contest built in bed as Branch Managers, Branch Operations Managers and Customer Facilitation Officers. A number of female MTOs possess been selected, proficient and posted as branch managers.Currently, 60 branches argon macrocosm headed by females. HR initiatives and strategy is amid at rivalrous employee compensation, prepargondness need assessment and sequence gentility. NBP is striving to break an employer of choice through im turn up HR policies and warlike remuneration. NBP organisational STRUCTURE Organization Structure of the National Bank of Pakistan Main Offices Main Offices of the National Bank of Pakistan ar of leash pillow pillowcases * Head Office * regional Offices * Bran ch Office Head Office Head placement of the National Bank of Pakistan is located in Karachi.Head office controls and monitors all the activities of the bank. The President of the National Bank of Pakistan seats the head office. A secretariat is established to assist the electric chair in the head office. The head office is divided into twelve parts. A stem old-timer controls a Group. President All Groups/Departments atomic number 18 headed by Group/Department Chiefs. President is the head of all Group Chiefs. All strategic offsprings be discussed and ap prove by the president and Group Chiefs. In Head Office following be the Group/Department Chiefs * Operations Group Chief * Corporate Invest.Group Chief * Special Assets Remedial Mgt. Group Chief * strategical belong updness Economic Research Group Chief * Treasury Mgt Group Chief * essay Mgt. Group Chief * mercantile Retail Banking Group Chief * canvass Inspection Group Chief * I. T. Planning Dept. Implementat ion Group Chief * HRM Dept. Chief * Org. Development nurture Dept Chief * Over-seas Operations Chief NBP HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT To provide more apt homophile resource in relation to tilt in all NBP functional atomic number 18as, creating a penury environment and maintain industrial accord.As evidenced from the Mission Statement, primaeval element of streng pasting the HR lookpoint of the bank embroils the following * Provision of endowmented human resource * Employee motive * industrial harmony Additionally, all the HR initiative implemented at NBP is in line with the above objectives. VALUES They believe that * rather a micro make the organization * People conjointly yield results * People shape ambitions and aspirations to be distinguished and rewarded * People form the human capital to be developed and invested in.LEADING POLICIES OF NBP requisitely modify policies atomic number 18 governed by SBP add policies however, NBP has some discounter power s in watch of lending policies. The advances make by the NBP establish bill-upd so much and are involved in creating a coarse amount of return for the bank. Deposits and the Advances are the deuce in-chief(postnominal) functions of any bank. NBP takes deposits from the customers and lend them to the others for earning a profit. The difference betwixt the deposit rate and the lending rate provide be the benefit of the bank. accomplished line branch of NBP is compete the most distinguished role in this category because it has a separate department to deal with the bulks those who destiny to adopt money. Civil line branch is dealing with the corporate sector as healthy up. Working jacket and Short Term Loans NBP specializes in providing exteriorize Finance Export Refinance to exporters Pre-shipment and place-shipment financing to exporters Running finance Cash Finance Small Finance Discounting Bills leveragingd Export Bills Purchased / Pre-shipment / Post Shi pment bucolic Production Loans spiritualist term loans and Capital Expenditure financingNBP provides financing for its clients capital expenditure and other long-term investment inescapably. By sacramental manduction the risk associated with such(prenominal) long-term investments, NBP expedites clients attack to upgrade and expand their operation thereby making workable the fulfillment of our clients vision. This type of long term financing proves the banks belief in its clients capabilities, and its lading to the commonwealth. Loan Structuring and Syndication National Banks leadership in loan syndicating stems from expertness to forge soaked relationships not tho with borrowers but excessively with bank investors.Because we get word our syndicate partners asset criteria, we help borrowers meet substantial financing call for by enabling them to reach the banks most elicit in lending to their particular industry, geographical location and structure through syndicated d ebt offerings. Our syndication capabilities are complemented by our own capital strength and by industry teams, who bring narrow down knowledge to the structure of a transaction. Cash Management operateWith National Banks Cash Management Services (in deal of beingness set up), the customers sales collection lead be channeled through vast lucre of NBP branched spread across the hoidenish. This impart enable the customer to manage their conjunctions total financial side of meat right from your desktop computer. They go forth similarly be able to take advantage of our outstanding range of payment, ejection, liquidity and investment services. In fact, with NBP, youll be provided everything, which takes to manage your immediate payment flow more accurately. customaryly in the lead Policies Include * Clean assurance Report. * conformation with maximum exposure by the bank. complaisance with maximum exposure that can be allowed to a single party. * Funded = 4 times of equity of the firm. * Non-Funded = 10 times of equity of the firm. SWOT ANALYSIS A SWOT analysis is an effective tool, which can be used to examine the issue that will directly affect the success of utility(a) delivery mechanism. The emerging banking environment is becoming more competitive with the advancement of natural technology. The banks are striving to provide their customers with large(p) and efficient services at freeze off cost in company to get the competitive advantage upon other banks.During the internship program a SWOT analysis was in addition conducted which is as follow Strengths * Deposit security measures that is guaranteed by political relation of Pakistan. * Largest contribution toward disposal & semi-Government requirements. * Agent to the SBP for with child(p) dealling Treasury/ silver Chest Functions. * Collaboration with Federal/ tike Government organizations for receipts of taxes & other revenues. * Largest ne bothrk of domestic & overseas bra nches. * More secured jobs of employees as compared to other commercial banks (Job Security). Sale & Purchase of prize bonds, NIT units, National Defense save Certificates (NDSCs) and other government securities. * Heavy compute financing, Agri cultivation, industrial as well as small loans. * Key role in countrys economic development. * motiveless and shortened documented procedure. * Guidance and help of experienced citizenry. Weaknesses * Under utilization of the advanced technology equipment & procedures of banking. * More formal organisational setup. * Bureaucratic style prevails in the National Bank of Pakistan. Lack of highly captainful, trained and professional force out department. * Fixed deposit rates not compatible with the competitors. * Foreign straight-lacedty accounts governing rules more restricted & not customer oriented. * Bank staff not highly cooperative among themselves as well as with the customers. * Overall employees poor status towards work. Opp ortunities * The dexterity to obtain a bigger customer give. * Global expansion. This is an enormous market, which will be a great luck in the future. * The ability to take advantage of the growing popularity of internet banking. Providing Information engineering science loans to the students and educational institutions in order to hold dear the Computer and Management studies. * Providing the face-to-faceized services to the customers. * Offering high deposit rates and cutting down the high lending rates. * Financing the educational institutions and general public welfare projects in order to throw a good image in general public. Threats * Continual changing technology. * precariousness of the banking industry. * Competition from lower price operations. * executable let onure of product due to non-acceptance of customer. General competitiveness of the banking industry. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS In addition to all the conjectural evidences we found which includes many conversa tions with people involved at NBP as listed in our findings, we luckily got the opportunity to meet the two senior executives in the HR department who gave accurate answers to our several questions. The HR function that we were most interested to find closely was RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION but we also met with the personnel division head and found out some how HR at NBP handles grievances and compensates its employees.Being students of business administration and on our musical mode to graduation getting into the most pensionable organizations corpse top priority and of courseNational Bank of Pakistan keeps top of the list. Obviously getting the separate head teacher of HR, Dr. Mirza Abrar Baig, to talk to us pipe down remains a big deal so we remained short of meeting him instead we got an wonder with Mohib-ur-Rehman Khan who is the manager-employee communication of valet de chambre resource management and administration group and, we magnate add, sits right ext to the G roup chief who also told us as mentioned earlier what the group chief had to say regarding our research. Here are mentioned some of the questions we asked and his answers. Q Sir, cheer tell us what type of hiring takes place at NBP? A Certainly. NBP applys in two diametric ways. angiotensin-converting enzyme is Contr essential hiring and the other is hiring of the main management trainees. Contractual hiring is when we employ someone for troika long time and then when the contract is rough to end we re flip over and sign a new contract. Main management trainees exist 50% of the attraction for our kitten of candidates.These are the employees to receive proper management development for high posts. Q Your external and immanent sources for be restoreding? A Currently we dont consider rehiring but we do focus on employee referrals and if the person who is retiring is valuable to us and no equal has been found out yet to take that place then we much stop the retireeother tha n this, as I said earlier, reemployment on contract does take place of that person is employ on contract initially. If and when internal candidates are recruited they are applied to the bunk of MTOs for future top posts.External sources include media advertize but not through internet. We publicise in the National and Daily newspaper once or twice. But we do college recruiting and obligate been do so quite success bountifuly in the past. Q So what is the actual recruitment and selection process? A It is very simple but often tedious and costly. We publish our criteria in the newspaper. make various sources of which are mentioned above, applicants fill out application forms and submit it to us. Once the applications are accepted there are indite tests which are held by IBP (Institute of Bankers Pakistan).These pen tests are both a mix of personality, cleverness and skill tests modestd on the persons analytical and communication skills. These are cornerstoned on the GMA T/GRE format. afterward the applicants are selected through these tests they are passed through group discussions and panel consultations. These inter judgments are structured and judged on equal alkali. For both types of hiring, root interview consists of a panel of 3 IBP and 1 NBP member and then for the second interview a panel of 2 IBP and 2 NBP members sits. Q What is NBPs educational criterion for hiring?A NBP requires an MBA degree (Masters in Business Administration) with a minimum 3. 0 CGPA. Q What do you look for when recruiting personnel? A We like to hire applicants who are team players with excellent interpersonal skills, yield knowledge and use of culture technology, switch strong analytical and bother solving skills and put up excellent written and verbal communication skills in English. So when they tell you in graduation school to emphasize on English, they are not wrong. Q What happens after selection? A after selection on-the-job preparedness starts.T hese include simulations and video simulated training. They find 27 weeks training with IBP, then 27 weeks training with NBP staff colleagues, then 54 weeks training on job and then they are on their own aboard. All the piece during training they are paid their profit. After this they are designated to posts in small cities and sent there for a period of three years and then if a proper idea comes in welcomed to work at the head-office. Once they get out of training groups of executives and officers are decided according to their skills and achievement of objectives.Thus NBP follows competency base job analysis. Q What near EEO laws? A We follow all rules. fit employment opportunity is not profaned by NBP. We have set the hiring quota for the modify up to 2%. Recently we hired a blind lady in the telecommunication department. We do hire blind, desensitize or applicants who are ill due to polio. Q What can you tell us nearly negligent hiring? What does the bank do if it co mes across a person who has had, lets say, a bad record? A As I said, NBP follows all the rules.As the recruitment and selection is both costly and time consuming we dont want negligent hiring on our hands. Thus we make sure proper guidelines are followed. All the background scores regarding certificates and other educational documents and graphic symbol calls are handled by the IBP. Once the wages pay check comes in, first rounds are do and police report is pass from the police department while on the other hand the person for whom deterrent is being per organise is notified of it all. After the police baulk report comes in then except the salary is paid.If there is someone who is place with a cruel background or false referrals he is told so and asked to withdraw. His information is kept secret (need for privacy). Targeted firing has not been started yet or else the employees go to court. Q How is judgment linked with recruitment? A When appraisal comes in, promotions h appen. Seats are vacated and we get the number to employ. This was all we discussed here from Mr. Mohib. While erratic about and reading the HR electric charge statement and vision we tried to look on into other departments but with little success.At around late after eat we got some little time beatified upon us and ultimately met the AVP/Head of forcefulness Administration, Mr. S. Hasan Akber Zaidi, of the Personnel and Industrial Relations Division. We grabbed the opportunity to ask some questions about how the HR at NBP handles the various grievances that come in. Q Sir, please tell us what actually does the personnel department do? A We fundamentally look into promotions, leave and absences, whether any chance occurs and also keep record that all due liabilities of the employees are exonerated. Q Promotions would mean that you also look into appraisal reports (ACRs)?A We basically have a policy department that makes all the policies for promoting and appraisals and also a separate department who handles appraisals but, yes, we do look into appraisals to know whose being promoted to what extent and how much an increase in salary takes place and how the others would be affected by it. In 1984, when I got hired there was no such thing as a coalition but now there is and so we keep check as to whether no biasness occurs. Q Tell us something about the Industrial Relation Department? A They are the people concerned with the laws of the union.They make sure that no mishap occurs and in the case of employees breathing out to court they keep check that all lawful procedures are followed in. Q what about the compensation procedures? A compensations are handled by the compensation committee. There is no sentiment of overtime here. We tend to provide a whole lot of facilities according to the posts the employees have and that can include medical, logistics other social station facilities. We also provide loans on land and property as well as other technolo gical things but keep a proper balance of these liabilities.Q What happens if an employee fails for some reason in paying his liabilities or disappears? A All employees have accounts. In situations like these, or when a antic occurs, we seize and freeze the accounts of those employees. The matter comes into our hand then and until and unless the reasons will be cleared we dont let any kind of transaction occur. Q What happens when you magnetize some one doing a fraud or someone disappears? What if they do not make know you of the absences? A There is no belief of rehiring. We decide at the time we catch the fraud what to do with the person and he is notified of our intentions.Most of the time frauds are not tolerated because NBP has a lot on its hands to harbor itself from. But there are exceptional cases where we have had some dilemmas and spirit into the matter deep has often resulted in a damp solution. For example there was a case at Gujranwala where decision making was n ot easy. An employee of ours didnt notify us that he was firing to take leave, didnt approve it and stopped coming to work. He was arrested by the police and the bank faced the problem as to let him back or not. The unauthorized absence and an fir tree was a dangerous match. But the personnel department looked into it.Since the police arrest was make on the basis of a family feud and had nothing to do with any criminal offence, the bank allowed him back on the job. such decisions require our foresight and logical reasoning. once more sometimes, retaining an employee is difficult and his grievances have to be handled in a different way and at other times a rosy handshake has to be offered in order to let other people take someone elses place. Q What about promotions? A There is a continuous meanning spill on. Arent we all looking for the same things? A raise in salarya better position. Its a mad race that we are running.Constantly we keep an mettle on whose going to replace wh om and with how much. Sometimes its honorable not the work that lets you through. Its the connections as well but then these things happen. The measurable part is that you have to keep an eye open and know everyone. If your colleagues like youthen you are the head of the list. Q How efficiently does HR keep all these records? A We have been upgrading and are still in the process of doing so. Everything will become computerized. In all total three hubs will be performed. Q Are any HR events held? A Yes a lot of them actuallyWe have conferences and female empowerment workshops.Also many talk sessions and quiz programs. With many thanks to the two executives who gave us much to think about we left their departments and headed towards the refreshments. OUR FINDINGS The bank has taken a number of HR initiatives to develop its workforce. Today banks have to survive in a highly competitive environment, where the demand for banking services is highly diversified and growing and changing rapidly. To meet the competitive challenges, NBP felt that it had to enhance the knowledge and skill aim of its employees so as to gain a sustainable edge over other banks.Importance is being displace on upgrading the quality of human resource for higher and better feat and to meet the demand of growing competition. non only are the employees being provided with the job related training to develop a talented human resource base at the bank, but certified management trainees have been clotheed, professionals have been hired to fill the skill time out, a talent pool has been created by identifying talented employees from within the bank throughout the country and placing them in important positions in all functional areas of the bank.All this was done with one purpose to develop a talented human resource base at the bank. In addition, the bank has gone(p) a step win and has made concerted reasons to reduce the gender gap. The exsert four to phoebe bird years, a change has been witnessed in the employment pattern, where more women have been employed at more responsible managerial positions, like those of female branch managers and female operation managers. While recruiting and selecting Management Trainee Officers, the bank management ensures that young and qualified females are offered equal employment opportunity. * gift MANAGEMENTThe highest emphasis was laid on talent management as it is now globally recognized that talent is the critical driver of corporate exploit and that an organizations ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain talent results in a major competitive advantage. Organizations that do better job for attracting, developing, motivating and retaining their talent wage increase their proceeding dramatically. * MANAGEMENT TRAINEE SCHEME Recruitment in the eternal cadre of the bank was kept in abeyance since 1995 and there was induction in the bank for nearly a decade in this category.To fill the skill gap the bank manag ement obtained special licence from GOP for restricted recruitment in the unceasing cadre on an annual basis till 2010. About 700 management trainees have been inducted till end 2007 from the start in year 2003. After a mobile scho closeic and on job training the management trainee officers were placed at responsible in high value branches all over the country. Their contributions in furtherance of culture change, infusion of contemporary work practices and boilers suit harvest-feast in banks performance is noteworthy.The Management Trainee Officers have been placed in the fields of General Banking, HR, Compliance, Risk Management, Treasury, IT and Audit. The Management Trainee plan of the bank has thus, proved highly successful and is being emulated by other financial institutions in the country. * endowment POOL SCHEME There was actualization by the banks management that there are many animate employees within the bank who had the necessary qualification, experience, skill and talent but due to one reason or the other their line of achievement growth had become stunted.Such employees were dispersed throughout the country and were required to be place for proper placement. In line with the global corporate strategy of leading result 500 Companies that the best people should be placed in responsible and primal positions, the effectuation of the NBP talent Pool Scheme has proved to be pioneering efforts in this direction in the Pakistan banking industry. Consequently, the first place over 200 employees were identified on moral excellence through written test and interview and interview for selection in the NBP Talent Pool Scheme and posted in positions of higher responsibility.The implementation of the second phrasal idiom is in process and it is envisaged that other clutch pedal of about 300 existing bank employees will be available under the scheme for placement in high value branches of the bank. * FEMALE BRANCH MANAGERS The demographics of P akistan are slightly skewed reflecting a higher female population which to a great extent is underutilized and their contribution to the economic sectors of the country in thus less than best level.Currently there is very high ambit of including this female population in economic activities as many of them are academically qualified to take up challenging job opportunities. In line with the Governments policy and vision of the banks President, NBP implemented a plan to empower the existing female employees of the bank and post them as managers in 10% of the banks branches. Around 30 female branch managers were selected from the existing female workforce of the bank while 30 others were recruited for external source.These 60 female managers have been posted at branches after intensive training and initial performance results signal that they have shown remarkable performance. NBP employees excelling in banking interrogative of the Institution of Bankers, Pakistan About four years ago the performance of NBP employees in banking examinations was quite dismal and it was the lowest in the banking sector. On account of the creation if an enabling environment with the managements encouragement and bear out for such academic pursuits besides various incentives, NBP employees today obtain the No. position in the country when compared to any other financial institution in terms of maximum number of NBP employees qualifying in such examination. * AGRICULTURE FIELD OFFICERS The rude sector of Pakistan contributes the highest to the GDP of the country. National bank of Pakistan enjoys the greatest strength in term of branch network which is concentrated in the rural areas of the country. The bank was therefore adequately poised to provide a full range of specialized financial services at the doorstep of the farmer.In line with the government policy to boost the agricultural sector with its large untapped potential for growth, NBP the initiative of the of developing a dequate HR base in the agriculture dominated regions of the country consequently, 100 agriculture officers were appointed having necessary agriculture based qualifications to guide, facilitate and provide financial access to the farmer for enhancing their agricultural produce. * CASH OFFICERS Counter service to the costumers has been granted top priority by the bank in order to meliorate the promptitude in delivery of basic banking service.To amend customer services, 300 cash officers have been posted through internal sources by promoting staff of clerical cadre. This also provided for employee empowerment and motivation in the past promotions in clerical cadre took over 10 years. Upon encouraging results of such initiative, we have, once over again internally advertised the position to induct another batch of cash officers which is going to be finalized shortly. * HIRING OF PROFESSIONALS Counter service to the costumers has been disposed top priority by the bank in order to i mprove the promptness in delivery of basic banking service.To improve customer services, 300 cash officers have been posted through internal sources by promoting staff of clerical cadre. This also provided for employee empowerment and motivation in the past promotions in clerical cadre took over 10 years. Upon encouraging results of such initiative, they have, once again internally advertised the position to induct another batch of cash officers which is going to be finalized shortly. * EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Human motives are based on conscious and subconscious need filled in individualistic, ranked order.Generally, motivation includes the entire class of drives, desire, inevitably and wishes, all of which are different for different individuals and further differ in their grandeur at various times for the same individual. Managing employee motivation is always an extremely composite task. To continuously enhance the level of performance of the employees and attain the optimum le vel for ensuring the growth of the organization, it is the primary responsibility of all HR practitioners to continuously maintain employee gaiety and high motivation levels.NBP utilized all HRM tools for enhancing employees motivation thereby, contributing to the banks record growth. Promotion and Career Progression During the last five years, 98% of the bank have been promoted at to the lowest degree once while, 45% of this total strength have authentic two promotions. This is a major step towards ensuring employee motivation and high morale. Promotions of employee who perform well are made strictly on merit basis and in the most transparent manner. Such promotions have been made a regular feature so that high performing employees are rewarded and their efforts in the growth of the bank are recognized.Employee salary Pay Packages 2004, 2006 and 2008 were negotiated and implemented to the complete satisfaction of the employees and n the best interest of the bank. This was a maj or accomplishment in view of the highly charged intra-union and inter-union rivalries compounded by the transaction of HR responsibilities. During last five years increase in pay was a 100% for almost all NBP employees. The ensure compensation levels of bank employees in relation to the market, salary surveys have been conducted and salary adjustments are being made wherever required. THE BANKS INTERNAL guest In order to provide maximum satisfaction to internal customers, which is vital for motivation and innovation each employee of HR has been given specific responsibility with the agreed upon standard time for each activeness. The performance of the individual in then continuously monitored for the actual time taken for each activity against the set standard, to measure the HR performance. This quantification and standard of each HR activity has resulted in substantial improvement in internal efficiency thereby, contributing to employee satisfaction and motivation. performanc e AND SPOT AWARDS A merit based culture has been established in the bank through implementation of achievement and number awards for individual employees showing exemplary performance during the year or in an designate task. The achievement award policy of the bank is a transparent system for honour high performing employees through achievement awards to 10% of the total employee strength every year. The policy of spot award is basically for recognizing individual employees their one-off excellent performance.Performance appraisal system has been revised to replace the traditional internal ACR to provide more objectively in paygrade and recognizing merit. This system has been implemented with effect from January 2007 for all executives and contractual employees. Further PAS will also be applicable to over 9000 regular officers w. e. f. 01. 01. 2009. Based on the evaluation of individual employees as per their performance appraisal, a system of pay for performance is being imple mented to properly compensate comparatively high performing employees thereby, strengthening the merit based culture. * EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATIONCommunication channels within an organization play a very important role in involving the employees participation in the implementation of policies. Through involvement in the implementation process, employees feel do to perform and establish their contribution in the boilers suit growth of the organization. The 1st phase of ECP has been consummate by 20 regions and about 8000 employees are already covered under the program. With a view to establish top-down and bottom-up communication, dialogue sessions with field functionaries of high value branches with the President have been held and constructive ghost incorporated.Further to make the employee communication more effective regular bi-monthly issuing of NBP Newsline and monthly publication of the Management Brief have also been introduced. * LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT After the shake-up o f the banks field structure and decentralization of power, Regional Management Teams (RMT) were formed at all 29 Regional Offices. These leadership positions were filled through a systematic selection of RMT Member on merit, in the most transparent manner and after qualifying through a rigorous selection process involving written tests, group discussions and interviews.The empowerment of Regional Management Teams and managers of branches through enhanced discretionary powers for prompts decision making and assumption of higher responsibilities has motivated them to ensure high performance levels. Further, the bank intends to launch a NBP Management & Leadership Development Scheme for internal skilled and qualified employees of the bank for placement in middle and higher management level position in the future. * INDUSTRIAL HARMONYThe implementation of all HR policies depends to a great extent, on continuously maintaining industrial harmony within the organization. This has to be ens ured through developing a mutual respect amongst the management and employee representatives. Mutual respect between the management and the CBAs as well as Officers representatives at NBP has been strengthened through trust building measure. These trust building measures include maintaining a continuous dialogue process with CBAs and Officers representatives.Industrial Relations Conferences were held to build better discretion of IROs and management policies, to ensure a current harmonious environment. Industrial Relations Conferences are planned at Karachi & Islamabad for 2008. Additionally, the Employees Communication Program involving meeting at regional offices for staff are planned to create better awareness of management policies and the banks tradition of employee care. WHY hold AT NBP? * NBP maintains its position as Pakistans Premier Bank with a extensive network abroad as well. The Bank currently has an employee has of over 15,000 employees worldwide. The various depa rtments include Consumer Banking Corporate Finance Investment Banking Agricultural Banking Transactional Banking Operations Software Development and mechanization Financial Control Treasury national Audit Risk Management & Credit Economic & Business research Training & Development Strategic Planning Human Resources * NBP has started several new programs to train its employees further to be prepared for the dynamic formula of their job and to meet the challenges ahead. Besides a competitive financial package, NBP offers excellent working conditions, job satisfaction, superior leadership, and a causative environment for growth. CONCLUSION It seemed impressive with the new HR department at NBP a major public sector bank, decked out in wood and glass, with people in and out trying to devise plans of how to boost up the morale of each and every working person there and how to recruit the best ones out of a whole lot. The steps taken for the strengthening of the HR base in NBP have been slavish in achieving record performance. This has been empirically proved through KPIs authorized from the field.Nevertheless, to remain competitive they cannot be complacent and should adequately prepare their human resource for meeting the challenge of competition in the future. A intent orbit meeting was held in declination 3 and 4, 2007 and a complete road map has been prepared for the year 2008. The goals and objective for the year 2008 were firmed up with a view to identifying the right kind of people enculturation them in the right direction, training them assigning tasks and roles that bring out their best, motivating them to put extra effort and creating conditions whereby the employees have a sense of fulfillment.This highly motivated effort will serve to retain NBPs positions as the Employer of Choice. In young times ,under the leadership of president Syed Ali Raza ,the banking has become conscious in promoting empowerment of women within the orga nization which not only requires a significant change in place but also immense revision in working culture. In view of this realization, national bank has accepted the abilities of women as component workers, and has started making the most of these potentials by assigning them managerial responsibilities.Currently, 63 branches are being headed by the females. The management under its female empowerment programme is perpetrate to have 10 percent of NBP branches to be headed by the females. The management also considered the implore for transfer of married and unmarried female employees to their desired place of posting which is close to their parents and spouse. The bank management envisaged that a strong human resource injection is essential for the success on a sustained basis .The management trainees scheme was introduced management for attracting talent from all over the country having professional qualification particularly in the field of business management and barter having proficiency in computer operation. The first batch of management trainees joined NBP in July 2003 to translate the idea. Up till now a total of eight batches have been inducted and of them have been posted to region and groups. In view of all these improvements that have been done we still remain controversial on the subject of getting employment in NBP.It is true that all gender biasness has been distant and extensive training has been organized care in view that talent needs to be recognized and appreciated. We also remain highly appreciative of the fact that since the development of the HR department and its focus on the issues of recruitment, selection, gender biasness, appraisals, compensation, EEO compliance, grievances and training, the fact that we would not have been able to gain so much cooperation of the people we interviewed at the bank without our own personal source speaks for itself for the kind of resources that still work in the public sectors.HR needs to f inish it or maybe it is on its way. We may gather from the data we received that many positive changes have come and are yet to come but are not negligent of the fact how and where what kind of biasness and sincerity is at work. While sitting in any organization you learn to come out of the theoretical meaning of appraisals and learn in real terms. We all saw the positive changes and the yearning way in which the department was at work in NBP and know that strategically its trying to achieve the better part of the system, competing against the system in its own way.For the bank itself, the need of HR is being fulfilled which keeps its employees more focused and well looked after. Here are some tips for being better employees than others that during our case study we have gathered Educate yourself Many people promoted to new, senior position think that they can learn on the job, without any need for education in the new tasks. Yet, if you wanted to indulge in a new hobby, for examp le if you want to learn how to play a guitar, you would expect to take classes.The same principle applies to taking up a new position or lamentable to new company. Your natural ability needs reinforcement by learning both general and specifics ways, how to do the work. Many companies fail to insist on this reinforcement. If the employer will not provide the learning, take steps to get it yourself. Master computers nevertheless you obtain access to computing power, it is an indispensable extension of your own brain and capabilities. You must quickly master a word processing programme, e-mail and a spreadsheet.Productivity aids like desk diaries and personal databases. Computer in many organizations now provide access to company files, colleges, message, customer, suppliers, collaborative, working and the internet. Strive for excellence The pursuit of the highest possible standards automatically points you towards achieving excellence. It you have achieve beau ideal in any activity , you must be the best, which is the proper objective in any context. In practice, aiming to improve skills means performing significantly better than your present standards, which are always imperfect.Remember that refusal to tolerate imperfection is a powerful force for success. Raise your standards However good you are at something, you can always improve. Similarly, however high the standards you have set for yourself and others, they can always higher. harbour to the total quality principle of continuous improvement to everything that you do. In a new position you may feel daunt by new demands and doubt your ability to tackle the tasks successfully. However, after the few weeks in the new role you will be performing well without difficulty.People tend to underrating their power, which achieves the opposite of maximizing potential. It is better to go-around and miss than never to try for the best of which you are capable. Learn a actors line Mastering other language makes a difference in negotiations and business relationships. It is also a valuable exercise for the mind. Cassettes and videos are effective learning tools but the best learning is interactive. You can sign up for the classes or use interactive media. because take every chance to improve your skill.It will impress everybody, including your foreign business contacts. Share your knowledge Make sure that any courses you plan to attend are relevant to your work. Then do all you can to apply what you have learnt. Do not be deterred by less enlightened colleagues who may pour reject on what you have been taught. You can only discover whether those lessons have real value by putting them into practice in your day-to-day work. Pass on your new knowledge to colleagues, and make them your allies. Be the bestJust like runners, managers and organizations needs opponents, or at least pace-setters, to produce their best performance. The process known as benchmarking measure comparable performance to set targets that they seek to exceed. The defect in this approach is that the benchmarks may themselves be too low. You want to be the best at what you do. That means looking at the performance of the others to see not just what they do well. Being the best means setting new ways, this drive for reform can be very demanding, but also highly rewarding.