Monday, September 30, 2019
Introduction to Tourism BEM1012 James Ince 620021716 number one tutorial question- Describe how the components of the tourism industry interact together in order to provide tourists with their holiday experience. Please state whether you agree, or disagree with the view of some academics that there is no such thing as the Ã¢â¬ËTourism ProductÃ¢â¬â¢. In the industry of tourism, there are a number of components that link together, to provide a family, couple or a group with a vacation. These components are more like steps. These steps include, how you get to your destination, where you stay, what activities you do and who organizes all of these things.The formal names for these components are: accommodation sector, attraction sector, transport sector, travel organisers sector, destination sector. They all play a vital role in any vacation. The accommodation sector deals with where they are going to stay, for example, hotel, hostel and bed and breakfast. The attraction sector involv es what activities the guest will do, while vacating. For example, Amusement parks, museums, beaches. The transport sector deals with how the tourist will get to their destination. Whether it is bus, train, plane or cruise ship.The travel organizers are the people that market and sell you the trips. For example, travel agents, tour guides, cruise lines. Destination sector is where the government assist a business. For example, Government may guarantee revenue, tax incentives to build hotels or attractions. All of these segments need to be balanced and coordinated properly to complete a successful industry. If anyone of these steps is not completed to a certain standard, it could impact on the overall industry. In the industry, there is something called the tourism product.This is what a destination collectively does, that either influences the tourist in a positive or negative way. At the end of the trip, it is the tourist perception of the destination, which is the tourism product. It is all the physical and non-physical components grouped together. For example, some of the physical components would be transportation and attractions. The non-physical components would be things like the weather and safety. The tourism product is providing the whole experience to the costumer, giving them the non-bias opinions for their vacation.Some academics have said that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe there is such thing as a tourism product. I disagree with this statement, because I believe you could have a successful business that provides all of these things to the costumer. My idea of the tourism product is having all of the components and steps needed to make the perfect vacation, added into one big step. This would save the customer, a lot of effort researching on their destination, which they know nothing about. They would get the insights, and secrets on their destination. Without all of the bias and marketing strategies.This business would be successful and reliable bec ause, it is not their product to sell, they are just putting it together for the costumer. The business would have to put the whole trip together for the costumer. To achieve this the business would have to get an insight on what the costumerÃ¢â¬â¢s interests were, to therefore plan activities that they would enjoy. To complete this process, they would have to put together all of the components together. Starting with the accommodation sector. A good example of a tourism product is, in my country Barbados, there are many different kinds of vacations you could have.If you are of the wealthy class in England, you can come to Barbados and stay in a five star resort. You can take the expensive chartered yachts out for the day as attractions. There are BBWÃ¢â¬â¢s you can rent to drive around for you transportation, this way; you can have all the things you have at home. If this life style does not suit you and you are more of a middle class citizen in England. You could buy a cheap a irplane ticket, from a travel agent on your street. Arrive on virgin or British airways. Stay in a three star hotel, rent a small car. Choose attractions that suit you, going to the beach, spending days in rum shops.Both of these examples give a brief explanation about what the tourism product is. The first component that the tourist must deal with while planning their vacation is, accommodation sector. This sector deals with where the tourists stay when they are vacating. This sector really depends on who is it is staying, whether it is a family, young couple, honeymooners or elderly. It depends on this because; they will want to be close to attractions that they enjoy. For example, young people will want to be close to the club street, while elderly would like to be close to museums or spas.This links to other components because, for transportation. They would like to fly in near to their hotel; therefore they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to pay so much to get from the airport to their ho tel. This reasoning also applies to the attraction sector also, because the tourist vacating, would prefer to be close to the attractions, that they have chosen to participate in. This sector is vital in planning for a vacation, because it determines where you are going to stay. The two factors that help people decide where they are going to stay are price and quality.These two factors usually come hand in hand. Although if you do enough research and enough asking around. You will find a cheap place to stay, with standard quality. The main challenges that occur when dealing with these components are: safety, quality, how central it is, fake marketing and how busy it will be. The second component that is dealt with when planning a vacation is the transportation sector. This sector deals with how the tourist will get from their home to their destination. When tourist plans this stage, they look for the cheapest, safest and best quality flight.This links to the previous component becau se, when you are traveling you want to get near to where you are staying. Therefore you wont have to travel far to get to your accommodation, and save money on extra traveling expenses. This component also depends on what kind of group is going on this vacation. If you have young ones that you are traveling with you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t book first class because they would probably be too loud. It also depends on how wealthy you are. For example if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford first class, it is unnecessary to book it because it is a luxury need, not a necessity.The third component of the tourism industry is the attraction sector. This sector deals with what the tourist will do while on vacation. To plan this, you must first look at who is traveling. For example, if it is a young group of friends, then attractions that suit them are nightclubs or amusement parks. If elderly are traveling, then museums or restaurants will attract them. This links to transport because; you need a way to get there. If it is nearby, then taxi will be adequate, but if the journey is far, then a train or bus may be necessary.It also links to the component accommodation because of the same reason; you want to search for attractions near to your hotel. You want to do this because; you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to pay that extra for distance transportation. The fourth component is the travel organizer. This sector is about who markets, sells and organizes your trip. This is the sector that is advertised in the television and radio; these people put together your trip, and try to make it as cost affected as they can. Examples of travel organizers would be cruise lines. Cruise lines are all in one package deals, you pay for everything upfront, and the whole trip is planned for you.This is a sensible trip, because you know how much you are spending upfront. The fifth and last component is the destination sector. This sector deals with government assisting and helping the tourism industry. The government does t his, because they want to economy to be competitive, and each industry to strive. Examples of government assisting the industry would be, government pay for infrastructure, incentives to build hotels or other attractions, training course for staff and allowing a business to do something, in order to attract people.This component links to the others, because some businesses cannot afford to do all of these things without help from government. To conclude, each of these components assist each other, in order for people to have a balanced trip. These components include, accommodations, attractions, transportation, travel organizers and destination sector. Each of these is needed for a tourist to have an enjoyable trip. If one of these components is not completed, the whole trip could be impacted majorly, there needs to be a balance among all of the steps.In the industry there is something called the tourism product, this product is the perception of the destination, from the touristÃ¢â ¬â¢s point of view. Whether the perception is negative or positive. It is how all of the components have come together, and how well they complemented, and worked with each other. Many academics think that there is no such thing as a tourism product; I disagree with this opinion, because I believe you can have a successful business, which provides all of these components to a customer.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
A pet peeve is an irritating experience caused by others that you cannot control. It could be an act, noise, or just something that ticks us. Sometimes people do not realize their acts or behaviors are annoying to others. Some of my biggest pet peeves are people who use a cellphone where or when there are not supposed to use it, people who chew loudly, and people who smoke in public places. The cellphone is a big invention at this time; people can use cellphones for many purposes besides talking with others. My pet peeve is about people who use a cellphone where or when it is not supposed to be used because it is very rude and disrespectful. I used to work as a cashier, and many customers, while they were paying for their purchases, were talking on the phone. They did not pay attention to the total amount they needed to pay and kept asking the cashier about the total. That kind of situation is unfair for people who are waiting in the line to wait longer. Some people think that as customers, they can do whatever they like. People who chew loudly are very annoying because that kind of habit is disgusting and inappropriate. People should not have that habit; only animals chew loudly because people learn about manners or the appropriate way to chew. It is very important for parents to teach their children about manners, so the children will not humiliate themselves. My last biggest pet peeve is people who smoke in public place because I do not like the smell, and it is dangerous to our health. Fortunately, I am not allergic to smoke, but for people who are allergic to it, they will have a hard time breathing. Besides that, smoke is more dangerous for second-hand smoke than the first hand smoke, and in fact, cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Everyone has a pet peeve, something that really gets on his or her nerves.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Education is the single most important factor in not only an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life and their outcome for success, but also the outcome of future success in America. In order for our country to be successful we must invest in our future generations and the training they will need once they move on to their future endeavors. Although America spends vast amounts of money each year on education, money is not always the answer. We must improve the performance in our classrooms by making sure we have the strongest faculty possible. Teachers being given the luxury of tenure are hurting student performance and the performance of America. Tenure is not only allowing teachers to keep their jobs secure based off experience rather than performance, but also it is this job protection that makes the removal of poorly performing teachers so difficult and costly. In a result, most schools end up retaining their bad teachers. Teachers having tenure is a very controversial issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. There are many pros and cons to this subject, but it is crucial that we have the strongest faculty we can in order to have a bright and prosperous future for this country. TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s tenure is a form of job protection that public school teachers receive after 1-7 years on the job. It was created in the early 1920s in order to protect teachers from losing their jobs to younger less expensive teachers. According to Time U. S. magazine, Ã¢â¬Å"Roughly 2. 3 million public school teachers in the U. S. have tenureÃ¢â¬ (Stephey). With all the budget cuts that have happened, many talented, energetic and young teachers are being fired in order for other teachers to keep their job. TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s job security should be based on performance in the classroom rather than years a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s been teaching. TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s tenure is one of the most controversial issues in education today. Many people argue that it protects teachers from being fired for personal or political reasons, and prevents the firing of experienced teachers to hire less expensive new teachers. Before tenure was in place, teachers would be fired if a new political party took office or even if the principle wanted to make room for a teacher friend. Tenure adds stability for the community around it because teachers with long careers are known and trusted throughout the community. Proponents also say that eliminating teacher tenure would discourage people from entering the teaching profession. Many people would decide to invest their talent in a more securable profession rather than risking their future on what could be a future pink slip. Having less talent in the teaching field would greatly impact education in a negative way. It would reduce innovation in teaching because many teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ lesson plans would become skewed towards the standardized tests in order to keep their jobs. Standardized test should not be the reason a teacher loses his or her job, but no teacher should have the luxury of having guaranteed job security. According to the pro-education reform documentary Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting for Superman,Ã¢â¬ only one out of 1000 teachers is fired for performance-related reasons each year. Teachers with tenure are the older and more experienced teachers. Although they may have experience, their age may be a downfall in their teaching tactics. The older a teacher is, the less energy they have for holding the attention of the class. Especially in the technological age, teachers must be not only energetic and relatable to their students, but they must also be computer savvy. Every classroom now a days has either a computerized white board, projector, or even a class set of laptops. The future of education relies on technology and many teachers that hold tenure have not grown up around such technology. This restricts them on their ability to utilize technology in order to relate to their students. With the high school drop out rate increasing each year, teachers must be well equipped with skills of not only the Internet, but also power points, online lectures, and also online tutoring that all their students may have access to. Society has risen the new generation of students to live off technology. Hardly ever do students look something up in a book rather than resorting to Google to find their answer. In a result, teachers that are younger with less experience in the classroom, tend to have more experience with the technological tactics of learning that many present day students prefer. Relating to the students learning habits is crucial for their future success in higher education. Firing a teacher with tenure is a very long and difficult process. It may take up to a year before the courts become involved before a teacher may lose their tenure. Teacher tenure requires schools to make long-term spending commitments and prevents districts from being fiscally flexible. Teacher employment contracts generally lack provisions for declining enrollment and economic turmoil. As a high school student, I saw many first hand accounts on the effects of tenure. Although it does affect teachers the most, the community around the school may be affected as well. While I was in high school, our school experienced many of our most talented young teachers being Ã¢â¬Å"pink slippedÃ¢â¬ . Many of the teachers being fired were the most respected around the campus, being favored by the student body by the way they could relate, and teach a subject with such interest. The majority of the school was outraged that many of the younger teachers were being fired rather than the uninteresting older teachers that did not get through to their students as well. The issue began to enter the classrooms affecting the learning of the students. The problem resulted in an organized Ã¢â¬Å"walk outÃ¢â¬ were the majority of my school walked out of their classrooms in an attempt to save the jobs of their favorite teachers. Although teachers tenure may create stability in a community, fair job protection, and an attractable job profession, tenure must either be eliminated completely, or much more difficult to acquire. Teachers in the K-12 must be held to the same requirements as a college professor in order to acquire tenure. Acquiring a tenure in college requires not only participation in the classroom for a certain amount of years, but also contributions to their given field and accomplishments they make in their long career. Teachings in the K-12 are usually held to the standard of working for two to seven years and then being rewarded job security. By being able to acquire tenure so easily, the education system as a whole suffers. With less talented teachers having secure jobs, students do not learn as efficiently which contributes to the lack of college degrees in America. Education as a whole is the most important issue for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s success. In education, learning does not start with the student, but instead the tools they are given to succeed. We must either eliminate tenure, or raise the difficulty of acquiring such job security for the betterment of our future leaders.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Non-state Actors Different From a Nation-State Actors - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that security stability of a given country or state is significant for peace maintenance and general economic development a stable society will attract investors hence the government should ensure that there is political stability in the country. The present research has identified that national interest is the basis of any nation if it is to fulfill what they intend to accomplish and are willing to protect its territories using its citizens, ideologies or its territories. Security not only has effects on the affected nation but also to other neighboring nations. In accordance with the issues discussed in the paper, when terrorists attack a nation it is seen as a global calamity. This has led to the establishment of security bodies dealing with international overseeing of security both international at the local level. Economic development in a nation is an indicator of high standards of living and thus government and non-governmental organ izations provide services, which aims at improving the economic state of the nation. International relations and realization of a stable nation have been a concern to government and various bodies this has led to the establishment of organizations foreseeing the overall security. Non-state actors and nation-state actors are examples of organizations establish to oversee security. The two organizations were set for a core role of security they, however, differ in several ways. This paper is going to outline the difference between non-state actors and nation-state actors. Non-state actors are organizations participating in international relations; they are entitled authority to influence and bring changes despite not being citizens of to the institution in the state they are located. The entrance entitled non-state actors into the international relations eliminates the postulation of realism and other theories of international relations. These theories argue the fact that interactions existing between various states contribute significantly in the study of international activities. Non-state has a significant impact on the society they are, however, not government representatives they include large private corporations, the Red Cross and private media among others. Nation-state actors are organizations representing the nation-state they are situated, they are citizens of that nation and their main role is to represent their government. They include bureaucrats, diplomats, elected leaders, and militants. The two types of actors have the main role of serving the people of different nations they are, however, different in terms of methods of operations and roles they perform. Nation-state actors represent the state officially; non-state actors, on the other hand, do not represent the state and are there to perform duties assigned. They are members of NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s and thus responsible to their sponsors. Formation of non-state occurs at the same time in different parts of the world their formation is recognized in states their situated, nation state were formed at a different place and time in various parts of the world. Nation-state actors are responsible to the government and their actions and undertakings are controlled by the state, for example, commissions created to investigate assigned issue in a nation have its activities monitored by the government. Non-state actors are not responsible to the government of the state they are situated they are an independent body, for example, The Red Cross undertakes their role without consulting the government they just follow the set guidelines. Non-state actors do not have a host state to be considered in instilling pressure on its leaders the Irish Republic Army during its operation in Britain operated as an independent entity without influence from the host state. Nation-state, for example, defense forces is controlled by state or its p atrons in instilling pressure in performing its duties, the patron appointed give out directions and orders during the delivery of their dutie
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Phase 4 Individual Project - Assignment Example In cases where the producing the duplicates is burdensome or exists as a public record, producing an original copy is not a must. Another exemption applies when the parties to a trial admit to the existence of the evidence through a written record. Judges have the power to determine whether a piece of evidence satisfy the rules guiding the use of duplicates as outlined in rules number 1001 to 1008, and 1004 to 1008. Judges derive these powers by virtue of rule number 1008. However there is an exception to these rules which allows the jury to look into the evidence to determine whether an original copy of the duplicate ever existed or the evidence in question is an original copy. The jury also reviews whether the unoriginal duplicate represents correctly the facts and opinionÃ¢â¬â¢s contained in the original copy. These rules are implemented by the United States court system for the purpose of proving the content of a written document, photography and recording. The rationale in the application of these rules is to ensure that the best available evidence is used in a trial (Garland, 2006). This is to avoid inaccuracies that arise in the following scenarios, In the case Olmstead v. United States of America, there are restrictions in the use of wiretapping as evidence in a trial court. This case occurred in 1928, and involved the legality of producing wire tapped private conversation as pieces of evidence by United States law enforcement officers. The use of these pieces of evidence was examined according to the provisions of the Fourth and Fifth Amendment of the American constitution. These sections outline the rights of the defendants in a trial. The Supreme Court was of the opinion that use of such evidence does not violate the provisions of the Fourth and Fifth Amendment concerning the rights of the defendants. The decision of the Supreme
Usage of Drugs at Music Festivals - Research Paper Example Most of the people on the occasion take drugs just in the name of having fun while others have just the curiosity of knowing how it feels taking the drug. Not being considerate of the adverse effects of the drugs, some people consume alcohol among other drugs abused, in the name of getting high. They believe that they need to be off their chops to enjoy the loud music and lights. Beginners suffer more compared to frequent users of the drug (Platt 1).Ã In some occasions, the carries away some individuals, who becomes hyped and pushes limits too far by doing things that they would not do in ordinary situations. At such point, they take drugs and do crazy stuff that they come to regret afterward when nursing their hangovers. Some go back to their homes injured only to realize when sober. Games such as Ã¢â¬Å"truth or dareÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"dirty deedsÃ¢â¬ played by youths during the event also contribute significantly in such occasions. Sometimes they dared one to drink or take a d rug that they do not know. They do so in the name of the game. Drinking competitions also leave others taking too much of alcohol, chewing blackout among other adverse effects (Lim et al. 440). One of the most commonly abused drugs during Electron Music Festival in the US is Molly, the recent name for ecstasy. They take the drug for the stimulation by light, sound, and touch sensation. To them, it gives a good feeling. They forget its side effects, which include paranoia, depression, nausea, and dehydration. Adversity of the effects of the drug occurs with an increase in temperature. Taking the drug in this condition increases the effects of hyperthermia. In some cases, it causes death from dehydration or heart failure (Hesse and Tutenges 88).
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Educational Mission Statement - Essay Example Organizational mission statement is a very important statement because it represents: Therefore, the mission statement is very central to the organization's identity and it is augmented by other things such as philosophy statement, values, objectives etc. The heart of any organizational mission statement is not in the words but in the commitment to carry out what is spelt out in the statement. This paper seeks to highlight the mission statement and the philosophy of nursing of a healthcare organization in comparison with the mission statement and nursing philosophy statement of a nursing department of an educational institution. Situated inWorcester, Massachusetts, Saint Vincent Hospital, a 348 bed facility, offers a myriad of health care services including surgery, cancer medicine maternity and child care services, neurosurgery, orthopedics, psychiatry, ICU services etc. Dedicated to provision of quality patient care with unyielding concentration to clinical excellence, safety of the patients and an unmatched obsession and commitment to guarantee best healthcare for our clients Saint Vincent Hospital's philosophy of nursing and nursing practice is summed up in their values which are simply broken down into five pillars. These are: Trust, Teamwork, Dignity and Reverence, Cooperation and Integrity. Teamwork - acknowledges the input of all but needs sacrifice for the sake of the patient's benefit so as to improve the health of the community receiving the hospital's service. The hospital also works in collaboration with other organizations in a bid to look after vulnerable groups in the community Cooperation - Between the patient and the nursing staff and also between the various clinical professionals and specialists Integrity - Integrity is prioritized and is demonstrated mainly through fairness, sincerity and self-scrutiny in all services rendered as a perfect way to defend general safety, as well as guarantee discretion and privacy (Huber, 2006). 2.2University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Nursing Services and Patient Care University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Nursing provide health care to the entire university of Iowa community. 2.2.1 Mission Statement Provision of high quality care for patients through strong dedication to innovation, practice, research, education, and collaboration 2.2.2 Philosophy of Nursing and Nursing Practice Nursing as an art and science- nursing as an art and science is devoted to enhancing both psychological and physical welfare of
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Fire service administration - Essay Example f fire extinguisher, burglar detection system in place and how the insured came to know about the fire, are essential for investigation (Redsicker & OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, 2010). The fire fighters officially need no warrant to enter in a building for a specific time having reasons to be there to investigate the matter. If the above persons are in a state of doubt, they have every right to arrange administrative or criminal search warrant as the case may be for necessary searches by intimating to the office of Prosecutor. For more elaborate investigation, they seek permission of district attorney coupled with crime specialists and legal experts to face the questionnaire relating to affected scene (Davis, 1978). If search needed, it should be specific in respect of the ingredients that are location of the property to be searched and specific items that require searching. If there is no reason or evidence available, the investigator may have some probable cause (Davis, 1978). A Probable Cause Affidavit should contain many aspects such as when and where the incidence took place; relevant information should be in chronological order leading to the ending point of ample evidence for a particular location; if other investigator need to investigate the place of incidence, it requires the following conditionality and in order to ensure maximum effectiveness, it should be with the consensus of all the stakeholders; Investigators are duty bound to keep that cause of fire for examination later on; the mentioned laws allow sharing of information between the police and fire investigator besides the investigators of the insurance company (Davis, 1978). The key aim is to ensure flow of vital information between the law enforcers and the insurers. It provides opportunity to the insurer or other persons connected with fires that seem to be suspicious in its originality. It permits insurer to inform the state organs about fire and share the information that has developed during the course
Monday, September 23, 2019
Treatments for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus - Research Paper Example Since its earliest explanation many of years ago, diabetes has remained a chronic progressive illness (Rubino et al. 1). The illness now affects over 200 million individuals globally, and diabetes-associated death is anticipated to go up by 50% in the next decade. The occurrence of the disease, from 1994 to 2004, among elderly individuals, went up by 63% (Rubino et al. 1). Diabetes is, at the moment, ranked as the 6th leading cause of death in the United States (Rubino et al. 1). In many other nations, it ranks far higher due to their extremely poor techniques of dealing with the illness. In the United States Prospective Diabetes Study, people with diabetes were treated with insulin, diet modification, sulfonylurea and metformin in order to ease the illness (Sloan 194). Even with the innovative pharmacotherapies (drug therapies), diabetic patients still develop micro- and macro-vascular effects. Diabetes is associated with increased stroke- and cardiac-related deaths, blindness and k idney failure, as well as 69% of the non-trauma lower-limb amputations (Sloan 194). The illness as a preoperative risk element confers much better morbidity than a previous myocardial infarction in cardiac surgery. Whereas this numbers indicate to us that this disease will be a global health concern of the next generation, its actual pathophysiology is yet to be defined. Alternative treatments targeting diverse models of this disease need vigilant and responsible assessment. A tremendous body of proof now showcases that surgery for type 1 diabetes can achieve complete illness remission, an objective almost unprecedented in recent diabetes care (Perry 22; Montenero 98; Fox 1550). Data gathered over many years of surgery showcases the success and durability of diabetes management gained after the surgery. Metabolic surgery is, at the moment, emerging as a field devoted to the development of surgical processes, particularly intended to treat diabetes. However, what about non-surgical treatment? Type 1 is treated non-surgically with insulin replacement Ã¢â¬â normally through an insulin pump or insulin injection, along with dietary management, usually including vigilant monitoring of blood glucos e levels with the use of glucose meters and carbohydrate tracking (Fox 1545). This paper will center on whether one should consider surgical or non-surgical treatment for diabetes. It will discuss the many surgical and non-surgical options currently available, as well as those under study. Evidence In the early 80Ã¢â¬â¢s, medical surgeons identified that a lot of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who had undergone pancreas transplant and islet cell transplant for treatment of the disease experienced a complete diabetes remission (Fox 1546). This remission confirmed to be durable. Since then, numerous studies have come up confirming the efficiency of pancreas transplant and islet cell transplant in treating T1D. In the meta-analysis of 30,000 diabetic patients, Cremieux (590) found diabetes resolution in 97.6 percent of patients experiencing biliopancreatic change or duodenal exchange, 84.9 percent resolution after islet cell transplant, as well as 47.9 percent diet management. I n an American diabetes study, a probable case-matched study compared diabetic patients undergoing surgery (pancreas or islet cell) with medication or non-surgical procedures (Rubino et al. 1). The data was gathered from 4,000 diabetic patients, who were tracked for over two years and others tracked for over a decade. The occurrence of diabetes at two and 10 years was overwhelmingly lower in the group that underwent surgery compared to the individuals who went for conventional treatment (Rubino et al. 1). Diabetes reduction rates as two and 10 years were 80 percent and 30 percent respectively following surgery and 20 percent and 11 percent with medical therapy respectively. A lot of people have argued that the decade remission rate is much lower than expected due to the high percentage rate of
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Eight Sign Miracles Essay The Gospel of John reveals eight sign miracles that Jesus preformed as He started His ministry. The miracles are as follows: turning of water into wine, healing of a noblemanÃ¢â¬â¢s son, healing of a lame man, feeding of five thousand, Jesus walking on the water, healing of a blind man, raising Lazarus from the dead, and the miracle catch of fish. As we look into each of these miracles each one has a purpose and a message to the audience, so letÃ¢â¬â¢s dive right in. Within the first miracle Jesus and His disciple went to a wedding celebration. While attending this wedding a problem arose, they ran out of wine. Then Mary approached Jesus with this problem Ã¢â¬Å"They have no more wineÃ¢â¬ (John 2:3). At this point we can only image what went through the mind of Jesus, but as Dr. Towns stated in our lecture time Mary knew that Jesus could do something. Jesus did not say that he could or could not do something he just stated Ã¢â¬Å"my time has not comeÃ¢â¬ (John 2:4). Ã¢â¬Å"Mary is presuming on her relationship with him as her son, yet Jesus is redefining this: He cannot act under her authority but must instead follow the course that has been determined for him by God.Ã¢â¬ (1) So Mary being a woman of faith knew that Jesus would be willing, but she would not understand it all until it took place. As Jesus took the opportunity to take the six water pots, the servants, and the water to make wine, He wanted them to see that He had power over creation. He performs His miracles at His appointed time and for the purpose that people might believe that He is the Son of God, and might have life through His name.Ã¢â¬ (2) This points to the fact that through Christ we have a new beginning if we would only believe. 1. Gary M. Burge, John: from Biblical Text to Contemporary Life (Chattanooga, TN: Zondervan, 2000), page 91. 2. Elmer Towns, The Gospel of John: Believe and Live, [Rev. ed. (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2002), page 20. Now we move to the healing of the NoblemanÃ¢â¬â¢s son, and he was a high ranking official that served Herod Antipas. The nobleman desired for his son to be healed, because he had exhausted himself trying to find the means to get his son to the right person. Ã¢â¬Å"All he could plead was for mercy, for his child was at the point of death.Ã¢â¬ (3) He went to Jesus to begging him that he might come and heal his son, but Ã¢â¬Å"Jesus chose to heal this noblemanÃ¢â¬â¢s son without making the journey to Capernaum.Ã¢â¬ (4) The thing that stuck out to me is that Jesus told him, you will never believeÃ¢â¬ (John 4:48), if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t see. Then Jesus tells him to go home and your child will live. I believe Jesus wanted to test the manÃ¢â¬â¢s faith, if he might believe without seeing first hand. Ã¢â¬Å" This is the case also when the royal officer Ã¢â¬Å"Believed the word that Jesus spoke to him; he accepted it as true and acted on it, (5) and I believe that exactly what Christ wants us to do with the word of God! As the nobleman was on his way he met some of his servants, and they told him that the boy was living. They informed him what time the fever actual left him, which was the exact time Jesus said that Ã¢â¬Å"Your son will liveÃ¢â¬ (John 4:53). So one could conclude that the noblemanÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in Jesus became real when he found out that his son was alive and his family found faith through believing. Next we come to the healing of the lame man, the man had been lame for 38 years and he had been waiting by the pool of Bethesda for healing. This was a place where Ã¢â¬Å"the waters of the pool were popularly believed to posses curative powers.Ã¢â¬ (6) 3. John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck, eds., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: an Exposition of the Scriptures (Chattanooga, TN: David C. Cook, 1983), page 288. 4. Elmer Towns, The Gospel of John: Believe and Live, [Rev. ed. (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2002), page 44. 5. Leon Morris, Jesus Is the Christ: Studies in the Theology of John (Chattanooga, TN: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2012), page172. 6. Charles W. Draper, Chad Brand, and Archie England, eds., Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Revised ed. (Chattanooga, TN: Holman Reference, 2003), page 192. Another interesting point is that the pool was used to clean animal before sacrifice. The pool of Bethesda means Ã¢â¬Å"house of mercy, which is exactly what the lame man was looking for, but he could not get himself into the pool. As Jesus meet this man he knew that he wants to be healed, because Jesus asked him Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want to get wellÃ¢â¬ (John 5:6) and his reply was that he has no one to help him. So Jesus gives him clear instructions Ã¢â¬Å"To get up and pick up your mat and walkÃ¢â¬ (John 5:8) which is a clear indication that when people obey Jesus and believe, then they start to see Him work through his word. We see that Jesus healed him through the power of His spoken word and gave him the desire of his heart.Ã¢â¬ The Sabbath was made for man so that he could have rest and a time for worship and joy. The JewÃ¢â¬â¢s rigid tradition taught that if anyone carried anything from a public place to a private place on the Sabbath intentionally, he deserved death by stoning.Ã¢â¬ (7) As the man meet Jesus in the temple Jesus wants him to realize the most things was to stop sinning or something worse might happen to you. Jesus wants him to realize that it was his sin that keeps him from heaven. As we move to the fourth sign miracle Jesus preformed, we see Jesus feeding the five thousand. Jesus saw the crowd coming to them and wondered how we are going to feed these people. When he mentioned this to Philip, he was testing him because He knew what was going to take place. As Jesus evaluated the situation we see a response from Andrew, Ã¢â¬Å"true to his character, brought someone to Jesus. Andrew brought a boy with a lunch, recognized it was not much, but at the same time knowing it was all he had.Ã¢â¬ (8) 7. John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck, eds., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: an Exposition of the Scriptures (Chattanooga, TN: David C. Cook, 1983), page 289. 8. Elmer Towns, The Gospel of John: Believe and Live, [Rev. ed. (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2002), page 59. So we can see that God cares about the people before him, the crowds were hungry and we see Jesus respond. Jesus took the little and made it enough food to feed the crowd. Ã¢â¬Å"The practical lesson is clear, whenever there is a need, give all that you have to Jesus and let Him do the rest.Ã¢â¬ (9) Jesus gave thanks and fed the crowd, when they finished there was still some left over to feed the disciples. This shows that Jesus was more than adequate to supply their needs according to His plan for their lives. The fifth sign miracle is that of Jesus walking on water. As Jesus leaves for the mountain of Galilee to pray, His disciples set out for the LakeÃ¢â¬â¢s northeast shore. As they sail about three and a half miles a storm catches them by surprise. The disciples are in fear of the storm when Jesus appears to them walking on the water. This causes their fear to increase because they saw Jesus walking on the water, Ã¢â¬Å"but he said to them; it is I donÃ¢â¬â¢t be afraid.Ã¢â¬ (John 6:20) This may be no more than a way of self identification, but the style is the style of deity and it accords with this that Jesus comes walking on the water.Ã¢â¬ (10) Jesus wants to show them that through Him and His power over nature that they need not to be afraid. As they were willing to take Him into the boat they immediately reached the shore, Jesus wants us to believe in Him and trust him to lead us to our destination. The next miracle introduces Jesus healing a blind man, that from the day of his birth he could not see. The picture behind this miracle was that if one believes in Christ then you will have the opportunity to see and understand what GodÃ¢â¬â¢s good, pleasing, and perfect will is. 9. Wiersbe, Warren W. The Bible Exposition Commentary. 2 vols. Chattanooga, TN: Victor Books, 1989. Page 309. 10. Leon Morris, Jesus Is the Christ: Studies in the Theology of John (Chattanooga, TN: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2012), page123. The disciple asks a very important question about sin Ã¢â¬Å"Rabbi who sinned, this man or his parents that he was born blindÃ¢â¬ (John 9:2) He points back and stated that neither of them did, but this happened so that Gods power might be displayed in his healing. Then Jesus goes on to say that He is the light of the world, but He has given us that light when He is not here. Ã¢â¬Å"When Christ is not physically present in the world, He indwells believers, makes His disciples the light of the world.Ã¢â¬ (11) The light comes to those who can see, the illumination brought about the question how was he healed. They could only wonder about how and what was the reason that Jesus used clay and saliva to heal this man sight. The question should not have been how, but the question should have been who did this. Then we see Ã¢â¬Å"the blind man to whom Jesus had given sight affirms his identity. (12) ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s exactly what Christ wants us to do when we have experienced His presence a nd that is to tell of the one who has done the work. Now we come to the next recorded miracle and that is the raising of Lazarus from the dead. When Jesus performs this miracle it reveals that He has power over death. This also points to the future for believers that we will be resurrection with Christ. The sisters sent word to Jesus knowing that He could do something, and He implied that Lazarus sickness will not end in death. Then Jesus reveals that the father will be gloried and it will be through Him. Another interesting point here is the time period in which Jesus waits to go to Lazarus to heal him. Jesus waited four days total to go to Bethany, He want them just to believe Him at his word no matter the situation and how difficult it might be for them. When Jesus arrives he sees the mourning and points out to the sister that He has the power over death and the power to give life. For me this miracle gives us great hope that Jesus is our way, truth and life to the Father. 11. Elmer Towns, The Gospel of John: Believe and Live, [Rev. ed. (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2002), pg 91. 12. Leon Morris, Jesus Is the Christ: Studies in the Theology of John (Chattanooga, TN: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2012), page125. Ã¢â¬Å"If Jesus is life, then those who believe in Him will enjoy the confidence and power over death known by Him. Moreover, they will have a life now and do not have to await the end of human time and history in order to enjoy the benefits of Jesus power.Ã¢â¬ (13) As Jesus gave thanks to the father so that the people might understand that it was from the father to the son that he accomplishes his purpose. Then Jesus spoke and said Ã¢â¬Å"Lazarus come outÃ¢â¬ (John 11:42) as Jesus commands Lazarus to come out He tells him to take of the grave clothes, which shows us that Jesus does have the power to defeat death. This confirms the deity of Jesus Christ and His relationship with the Father. Lastly we come to the miraculous catch of fish; Jesus appeared to them while they were fishing on the Sea of Galilee. There is a great connection with the Sea of Galilee with ministry of our Lord Jesus Christ. This is the third time Jesus had appeared to his disciples after He had been resurrected from the dead. The fishing experience leads them out to sea with no results for their efforts, and I believe it was because they were depending on themselves. Then we see Jesus show up, Ã¢â¬Å"it was time for Jesus to take over the situation just as He did when He called Peter into discipleship. He told them where to cast the net; they obeyed and they caught 153 fish! The difference between success and failure was the width of the ship.Ã¢â¬ (14) A lot of time we are so close but so far away because we depend on our own strength. Jesus wants us to let go of the steering wheel and allow Him to have full control. Ã¢â¬Å"We are molded fishers of men, and there are fish all around us. If we obey His direction, we will catch the fishÃ¢â¬ . (15) The world tells us that seeing is believing, but Jesus tells us to believe in Him and then we will see the promises of God. 13. Gary M. Burge, John: from Biblical Text to Contemporary Life (Chattanooga, TN: Zondervan, 2000), page317. 14. Wiersbe, Warren W. The Bible Exposition Commentary. 2 vols. Chattanooga, TN: Victor Books, 1989. Pg 397. 15. ibid 397. Bibliography Burge, Gary M. John: from Biblical Text to Contemporary Life. Chattanooga, TN: Zondervan, 2000. Draper, Charles W., Chad Brand, and Archie England, eds. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Revised ed. Chattanooga, TN: Holman Reference, 2003. Morris, Leon. Jesus Is the Christ: Studies in the Theology of John. Chattanooga, TN: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2012. Towns, Elmer. The Gospel of John: Believe and Live. [Rev. ed. Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2002. Walvoord, John F., and Roy B. Zuck, eds. The Bible Knowledge Commentary: an Exposition of the Scriptures. Chattanooga, TN: David C. Cook, 1983. Wiersbe, Warren W. The Bible Exposition Commentary. 2 vols. Chattanooga, TN: Victor Books, 1989.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Modern Methods Used In Sheet Metal Forming Mechanics Essay This report elaborates the recent advancements in the process of Sheet-Metal forming in automotive industry since this technique is considered as one of the most important issues in the current industry. Further more in this report brief description is explained on the most modern forming methods like Electro-magnetic forming, Super Plastic forming and Fine Blanking. Based on the understanding and analysis of each forming processes, the best one is suggested. II. Introduction: In the world of automotive industry a lot of metals have to be used to make the parts of an automobile. The metals found are of very rigid shapes and sizes and it cannot be directly used, to make the required sizes and shapes in the automotive industry the main metal working process used is the sheet-metal forming process. The sheet metal forming process is a process in which solid metals can be made into thin or flat pieces, and sheet-metal forming is one of the very fundamental methods in manufacturing. It can be defined as, a manufacturing process which fabricates by shaping or moulding a piece of metal into a sheet.Sheet-metal forming has a number of processes in the present world but a lot of modern processes are being preferred to the classical processes. Usually, fabrication of complicated sheet metal components requires a complex combination of various shaping processes and the final assembly involves welding, riveting and other binding methods. Henceforth a very much afforda ble solution for sheet metal forming is by applying efficient and modern processes like Electro-Magnetic forming, Super-plastic Forming, Fine blanking, Explosive forming, Hydro-forming, Electro-Hydraulic forming, etc.In this report the most modern processes of sheet metal forming are discussed and III. Main Body: 1. Electro-magnetic Forming: Electromagnetic Forming is one of the advanced methods of sheet-metal processes. It is basically called as EMF in short form. Electromagnetic forming has been in use for nearly three decades. The principle of this process is that it makes use of the electromagnetic forces to make a sheet or a part by using high speed velocity forming techniques. Electromagnetic forming works in a way, in which, a current is produced from a capacitor and it is made to pass through a coil to form a strong magnetic field around the coil. The coil is situated in the work piece, thus forming an induced eddy current around the coil the eddy current generates another magnetic field in the metal work piece (El-Azab et al. (2003)). The two magnetic fields have repulsive force with each other and cause a deformation to the work piece. This deformation is permanent due to the stress created on the work piece by the force and this is called as Electromagnetic Forming. So EMF makes the material to stretch at very high speeds. 1.1 Advantages of EMF: EMF has many advantages, they are listed below, It has very high property of repeatability because of the energy output which can be adjusted as many number of times. There is no such contact between any tools to the work piece due to the magnetic fields. EMF does not need any lubricant because there is no tool acting on the whole process and hence leaving no marks created by the tool on the work piece. EMF is basically called as a non-contact process thus it does not have any damage on the work piece. Due to no physical contact extra bits and pieces will not fall out and will thus have less cleaning to do with the sheet. By doing this process the work piece will get a good coating. There is very less time consumption in this process. There will be no friction or physical stress on the work piece as no mechanical forming methods is used. 1.2 Limitations: This process can only make thin sheets because only a less amount of pressure is applied by the coils. The work piece material will have a very short time to stretch as the whole EMF is process occurs in a very short time. 1.3 In Automotive Industry: Aluminium is the main material used to make parts for the automotive industry. There is a great demand for fuel-efficiency in present world and the weight of the automobile is another basic factor. The only possible ways of weight-reduction is by making a controlled design or by using lightweight materials. Aluminium is the best considered material as it satisfies the regarding properties, by using aluminium die-cast materials can be used to make highly complex materials form a single piece, thus it helps in attaching fewer parts more rigidly and hence a rigid body can be created by using Aluminium die-cast materials (Davies et al. (2004)). When taking aluminium in to consideration with its characteristics, increase in rigidity and passenger protection can be achieved without considering the lightness. 1.4 Uses of EMF in Automotive Industry: It is a non-contact process and no touching of the part is needed because the only effect affecting the part is the magnetic field and thus the automotive parts are made damage free. The ductility is very high. Anyone operating the machinery does not need any special training due to the process being noncontact. If there is a comparison between this method and another method, the main benefit for the EMF will be the repeatability. Due the method being a non-contact process and electrical, there is wear and tear of the part even though many numbers of parts is made which can look exactly the same to each other. 1.5 Limitation of EMF in Automotive Industry: This method being electrical, if the materials used have less electrical conductivity then there is no point in using this process. The aluminium part is slightly expensive and that can be one of the problems or the companies which use Electromagnetic forming. 2. Super Plastic Forming: This process is one of the modern processes used in the automotive industry. In short form it is called as SPF which means Superplastic Forming. It mainly involves the super plasticity which means the point at which the metal ruptures due to the strain produced in the process and in which the metal can stretched and made into thin sheets. Super plastic forming process is takes place at increased temperature, where the stress-flow of the sheet metal is less. At first the metal sheets which are supposed to be used is heated at the ends and then a gas pressure is implied when the whole apparatus is inside a simple shape or a complex shape to make a required shape (Davis and Hyrn (2007)). The process involves expanding of the materials but it cannot be applied for materials that do not have super plastic properties. Normally super plastic materials can elongate up to 10 times. Whereas titanium naturally posses super plastic properties and some aluminium alloys and a few stainless steel a lloys also be made to show superplastic properties. Aluminium alloys can expand about 1/4th during the forming process.It was first used widely in making parts for jets and aerospace regarded objects but as time grew automotive industry has used a lot of benefits from SPF. In general superplastic forming uses the sheet forming processes to mainly elongate the work piece by using very high temperatures and SPF can be used to materials which accept the properties of superplasticity. This process helps to make very complex geometry of parts. It is mainly used in making aircraft wings and automotive parts as the metal aluminium is used in which it are stretched by heat. The basic materials used in the SPF are the aluminium alloy which is quiet expensive. The process basically needs nearly 900 Ã ° C regarding the alloy used, dueto this heatthe flow of the stress involved in the sheet material is low(Gallagher (2001)). The sheet material is placed on a SPF die in which a simple or complex geometry is present and then the tooling is given high heat and a gas pressure is implied which in turns deforms to the shape of the simple or complex cavity. There are many different types of properties of superplasticity with regards to microstructural mechanisms and deformation and the materials which undergo these types of superplasticity can be considered as a superplastic material; Micrograinsuperplasticity Transformation superplasticity Internal stress superplasticity The following processes can be used for forming superplastic sheet materials and they are: Blow forming and vacuum forming Thermo-forming Deep Drawing Superplastic forming with Diffusion Bonding a) Blow forming and vacuum forming basically has a die cavity in which the superplastic sheet are placed, the sheet is placed in between the cavity and a gas pressure is implied to the cavity, from which the superplastic sheet takes the shape of the die cavity. b) Thermo-forming is generally used for forming thermoplastics. In this type of forming there are two dies which in this case is male or female and they are moveable, this moveable die enables the sheet to stretch before a gas pressure is imposed on the sheet to make the required shape of the die cavity. c) Deep Drawing with heat can be imposed on superplastic materials. Firstly deep drawing depends on the hardening of strain to get the needed formability and to prevent damage while forming the material and thus has less advantage compared to Blow forming and thermo-forming. This is because superplastic materials can only harden strain to a limit. d)Superplastic forming (SPF) with the use of Diffusion bonding (DB) is a method which combines both qualities of SPF and DB, but DB is basically not a sheet metal process, since the temperatures used in the process of SPF and DB are similar they can be made use in unique fabricating methods for the materials. The aims of this combined process is to make a damage free forming process and to reduce the number of components and joints used in the processes. 2.2 Materials used: The most common materials used for superplastic forming are as follows: Titanium alloys Aluminium alloys Bismuth-tin alloys Zinc-aluminium alloys Stainless steel Aluminium-lithium alloys 2.3 Advantages of SPF: Less weight and which increases fuel efficiency Performance of the design is improved with the help by its structure Can make very complex parts which in turn has great formability Low cost tooling thus resulting in low cost of the parts Low noise and Does not affect environment 2.4 Limitations of SPF: Low strain rate The time consumption of the process in which it forms the part is one important limitations of the SPF. The whole processs cycle can vary, thus it is used on materials which has less volume. 3. Fine Blanking: Fine blanking is a process in which a type of metal stamping is used to make the flatness of metal and very precise sheared edges of a metal. It is one of the modern methods used in the automotive industry for sheet-metal forming. The process is mainly made use by the automotive industry because of the quality level and the size of the materials and tools used which in turn makes it cost effective. At firstfine blanking was first discovered in Switzerland to make small gears and levers for a watch and clock company and after that grew to be more versatile and feasible for it could be made use in the automotive industry. In this process there is no chance of fracturing of the metal while shearing, for example it can make a number of holes in a metal sheet with perfect shearing and no damage with regards to the size of the metal, thickness of the metal and how far the holes are spaced. The process can generally make very complex shapes in a quick span of time without having to do too m any procedures in the whole process. It is basically a bypass for processes like casting, forging and fabrication in manufacturing. The process is a combination of stamping, punching and an extrusion process. Fine blanking is less expensive than processes like forging or casting but fine blanking although being a very versatile sheet-metal forming process it cannot make 3-d shapes of any use, but some innovative thinking and designing can be put forth to make such products which can economically benefit fine blanking. 3.1 Working of Fine Blanking: Fine blanking generally uses the materials like aluminium, copper, brass, carbon and stainless steel alloys. Fine blanking is a way of metal pressing processes but it has got extra parts to make it unique. It includes two dies (male and female), a guide plate and a V-ring which is also called as a stinger. The male die is the hardening punch which punches the material, whereas the female die is the hardening blanking die. The stinger basically is a sharp edge that surrounds the area of the material that has to be punched. Now, there will be a pressure applied to the punching die so that it cuts the metal and it pushes the cut metal into the empty die. The guide plate helps to hold the material into place firmly so that there is no movement of the material while the pressure is applied, thus the whole process acts like an extrusion rather than a traditional punching process (Hedrick (2006)). Due to the guide plate holding the material so tightly, the materials flatness in perfect, the re is no distortion or damage and there is a very minimum amount of edge burr. Burr is actually called as rough edge of a metal after a cutting, drilling or a punching process. After the punching is done while the material is held tightly by the guide plate, the slug and minute particles are pushed away to keep it clean for the net material to start the process. With a very good fine blanking process one can make many parts in a short period of time and with only one operation. The parts manufactured can be pierced fully like a hole, or partially pierced, embossed and also coined. Many gears, levers and materials have been made by the use of fine blanking. To make a fine blanking process function exclusively to manufacture a quality product, the following points should be required: Fine Blanking Press Fine Blanking Tool Ductile Material 3.2 Advantages: Fine blanking process has got many advantages and they are: By doing fine blanking we can get tremendous flatness of material that is merely never possible to acquire by any other cutting processes, thus it does not have to undergo any other flattening processes after the basic operation of fine blanking. Fine blanking can be used to make small holes in very thick and heavy metals and it can be used on many different metals. It can be used in embossing of metals or can be made use in coining and piercing. The process has got very good accuracy in making materials with precision, control and has good repeatability in production wise. Fine blanking helps to make the edges perfectly sheared,very straight and have no breakage of edges compared to other metal cutting processes. There is very high tolerance level in the tools of fine blanking when making holes and other parts which gives very good quality to the material. Many features can be put in while fine blanking in to just one operation other than having any secondary or tertiary operations. 3.3 Limitations: Fine blanking although being a very versatile and feasible process, it has got a few limitations and they are listed below: Fine blanking can cause damage to the tools used because of the small clearance level of the whole process thus the tools are generally coated with few materials to prevent the wear and tear. In general the stinger or the V-ring consumes a lot of space therefore a lot of material is needed to be used to make a small part. In fine blanking, after the material has been cut out, burring is present in large amounts, so, often there is a need for deburring. Fine blanking process is a slow process which consumes a lot of time to make parts in comparison with the other similar processes. The equipment used is slightly expensive than more conventional punching methods. Since it is a little expensive many companies who want to use fine blanking give a lot of consideration before investing in the tools IV. Conclusion: After doing research on the modern processes used in sheet-metal forming in the automotive industry for manufacturing the latest technology which is involved in this method are Electro-magnetic forming, Superplastic Forming and Fine blanking process. These processes were more efficient and cost effective while compared to traditional processes like bending, stamping, shearing and drawing, but these processes might not be the ultimate result with regards to sheet-metal process. From the three processes discussed above the most favourable process which can be recommended in the automotive industry is Superplastic forming process. The key advantages of Superplastic forming are design structure of the material used, formability of parts, fuel efficiency and low cost in tooling in comparison with the other two processes is much better. Hopefully in the future, there may be more processes which are more efficient for the production in sheet-metal processes in the automotive industry. V. References: A. El-Azab, M. Garnich, A. Kapoor, Modeling of the electromagnetic forming of sheet metals: state-of-the-art and future needs, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 142, pp. 744-754, 2003 Accudyne Engineering Equipment Company: super plastic forming. Available at: http://www.accudyneeng.com/spf.htm [Accessed 12th January 2010] Gallagher, Helen (2001): thefabricator.com. Available at: http://www.thefabricator.com/presstechnology/PressTechnology_Article.cfm?ID=115 [Accessed 12th January 2010]. Harig Manufacturing Corporation: fine blanking Available at: http://www.harigmfg.com/fineblanking.html [Accessed 12th January 2010]. Hedrick, Art (2006): thefabricator.com. Available at: http://www.thefabricator.com/PressTechnology/PressTechnology_Article.cfm?ID=1402 [Accessed 12th January 2010]. R.W.Davies, S. Golovashchenko, J.A. Carpenter, Electromagnetic Forming of Aluminum Sheet, Automotive Lightweighting Materials Fiscal Year 2004 Report, pp. 31-38, 2010
Friday, September 20, 2019
The causes and effects of mergers and acquisitions It is still the start of the 21st century and as per the predictions, the world is moving at a brisk speed. The people who catches up with the world right now will be able to survive others will not be able to follow them. Same is the case with the companies of the 21st century. Companies today need to be fast growing, efficient, profitable, flexible, adaptable, and future-ready and have a dominant market position. Without these qualities, firms believe that it is virtually impossible to be competitive in todays global economy. Academics and other observers advance value-maximization, managerial ego, mimicry, the need to reduce uncertainty and defensive considerations (acquire to avoid being acquired; ensure that growth keeps up with that of competitors, etc.) and high levels of corporate reserves and share valuations among the motives behind consolidation in financial services. Supporters of MAs allege that they facilitate synergies between merged organizations, generate efficiency improvements and increase competitiveness. Indeed, they hold that mergers, by increasing economies of scale and spreading costs over a larger customer base, enable financial operators to provide services at lower prices. Demonstrating that MAs improve efficiency is thus central to making the case for the consumer benefits of mergers and in assessing their potential impact on consumers. If mergers improve efficiency, then larger, combined firms may be expected to pass some savings on to consumers through lower prices or improved service. In some industries such as insurance or banking, firms may move into new markets. In others such as pharmaceuticals or software technology, firms may work with smaller firms that have developed or are developing new products that they can manufacture and/or distribute more efficiently, while other firms focus on their own internal growth, leadership and development. Regardless of industry, however, it appears that it has become all but impossible in our global environment for firms to compete with others without growing and expanding through deals that result in mergers or acquisitions. Mergers and acquisitions are increasingly being used by firms to strengthen and maintain their position in the market place. They are seen by many as a relatively fast and efficient way to expand into new markets and incorporate new technologies. Yet their success is by no means assured. To the contrary, a majority fall short of their stated goals and objectives. Mergers Acquisitions an opportunity to improve employee relations or pull off some krafty moves? Mergers and Acquisitions (MA) have been a current topic within HR and Employment Law for a long time now but the last ten years has seen far greater opportunities opening up for companies (including private equity funds etc) to make that transforming acquisition or merger with a rival which will deliver major financial benefits and enhance shareholder value. Of course it is a well known fact that more than 60% of mergers/acquisitions fail to achieve their planned objectives. One major contributory factor in this has been the failure to pay sufficient attention to the people aspect of this type of change. Emotions can and do run high during protracted MA battles. Obviously the financial, legal and commercial issues will take precedence over the people issues. However compelling the financial or commercial case, a takeover will not succeed if key individuals are not motivated to make the new arrangements work. Those key individuals can be at any level in the business and it is not always the case that there are many other qualified and more motivated people just waiting to take their places. Rectifying these problems, although possible, can be costly. Kraft may rue the day when they failed to deliver on their commitment and dismissed many knowledgeable and experienced staff at Cadburys near Keynsham.Ã Neglecting the human factor is a frequent cause of failure Cultural and symbolic elements in MAs are typically framed in terms of the distinction between the merging firms, thus leading to an us versus them dualism. The creation of formal, internal communications mechanisms as early as possible in the process is necessary to limit the anxiety that will otherwise be fuelled by rumour, the grapevine, or even outside news reports. Employees complain that their first knowledge that their employer is involved in a merger or acquisition is often from the morning news before setting off for work. According to a Hewitt Associates executive, the fact that the human factor is taken into account in only 5 per cent of MAs explains why more than half of them in all sectors fail. Teams are usually put together to oversee merger and acquisition operations. These teams almost always comprise specialists in legal and financial issues as well as experts in strategy but rarely do they include human resource directors. One possible explanation is the fact that speed is generally considered of capital importance for success. While the integration phase of merging enterprises may cover between three to five years, the first 100 days after the announcement of the transaction are the most crucial for success or failure. It has become common practice to prepare and communicate to staff and shareholders a programme of integration activities to cover this period, when the feelings of fear, apathy, demotivation and the classical victor and vanquished syndromes are at their highest. Since a majori ty of mergers end up with the elimination of overlapping functions and positions, the first 100 days are likely to be those when staff are most uncertain about jobs, career prospects and the disappearance of their own corporate culture. To reduce the possibilities of failure in MAs, some management experts have recommended that human capital be placed at the centre of the process, or at least be given equal attention to that assigned to economic and financial considerations. According to this school of thought, such a redirection would enable acquirers to select the most compatible acquisition targets from a human resource perspective and make integration that much easier. Frank communication on a daily basis between management and staff helps to dispel some of the uncertainties of MAs and avoid organizational drift. Employees should be informed in good time about the manner in which redundancies, if there are to be any, will be decided and about the role of their trade unions or representatives in the process. It is also important for staff from the acquired organization to be assured that the rights and entitlements they had with their previous employer are to be respected; otherwise there is a high probability of conflict. Merger uncertainties are also frequently blamed for the loss of talent from target companies, which can destroy the very basis for the merger. The failed merger plans between the Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank in April 2000 demonstrate how staff resistance can undermine corporate strategies and management wishes. Integration of teams from the respective investment banks of the two parent banks posed a risk to the balance already achieved between staff in Deutsche Morgan Grenfell and the previously acquired Bankers Trust. MAs imply immediate and direct job losses A study on the efficiency effects of bank mergers in the United States, which summarizes nine case studies, reports that all nine mergers resulted in significant cost cutting in line with pre-merger projections, although only four of the mergers were clearly successful in improving cost efficiency. As for employment, the largest volume of cost reductions was generally associated with staff reductions and data processing systems and operations. Payroll reductions often accounted for over 50Ã per cent of the total cost reduction and in at least one case the reduction in staff costs accounted for nearly two-thirds of the total. In all cases, the savings achieved were of the order of 30 to 40 per cent of the non-interest expenses of the target. All of the merged firms indicated that the actual savings either met or exceeded expectations. Most of the firms projected that the cost savings would be fully achieved within three years after the merger, with the majority of the savings be ing achieved after two years. Managing downsizing related Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã to MA restructuring While MAs are driven largely by financial considerations, their success vitally depends on the motivation of retained workers to contribute to the achievement of merger objectives. The high proportion of failed MAs may not be unrelated to the manner in which staff are often relegated to cost variables rather than being made active partners in the change process. Social plans, guarantees against forced departures and the involvement of staff in MA-related decision-making are critical motivating factors. The study referred to in Chapter 1 concluded that the failure of the overwhelming majority of MAs resulted from concentration on hard legal and finance issues to the detriment of the soft people issues in merger planning and implementation. Poor communications with employees appeared to pose a greater risk than that with shareholders, suppliers or customers. The study found that success was linked to a holistic approach when the soft people and cultural issues were an integral part of the focus on financial performance. Of the companies involved in the survey, just nine (less than 10 per cent of respondents) addressed all the soft keys, and each was successful. The study stresses the fact that once value was lost, it was seldom recovered. Even though possibly the most difficult to implement effectively, headcount reduction was the area in which most companies reported achieving their targets. Loss of staff an inevitable result of MAs often included the very individuals the acquirer needed and intended to keep to succeed. MA value extraction was impossible without the enthusiastic cooperation of employees. MAs, remuneration and other compensation issues Two conflicting aims appear to characterize current practices in financial sector remuneration: the need to reduce labour costs within a context of increasing competition and decreasing profitability and the necessity to compensate and adequately reward employee performance and commitment within an environment of continuous and challenging change. Recent trends in compensation policies are moving towards more contingent, individualized and explicitly performance-based systems, while seeking to retain workers loyalty and commitment to organizational goals. This might explain why changes in compensation have tended to be less dramatic than expected compared with both current rhetoric and experience in other industries. The main exception to the industry trend is the United States, where in the absence of a collective wage agreement or any kind of coordination between banks in wage setting, wide differences in compensation levels both between and within financial institutions have a lways been the rule. Sales-based bonuses, either individual-based (as for lenders in wholesale operations) or distributed via managers to branch offices, are the most widespread example of incentives, while commissions have become common for crucial jobs, such as investment advisors.[76 MAs and working time The link between financial sector concentration and patterns in regular working time is difficult to identify because working-time agreements depend upon the national context and are not limited to the sector under consideration. Banks adoption of the retailing model is encouraging them to adjust their hours to customer requirements, extending opening hours on at least one day a week and even opening some branches on traditionally closed days such as Saturdays a trend which has aroused strong trade union reactions in a number of countries. It goes without saying that MAs can provide an opportunity for management to opt for more customer-friendly working hours. However, the rapid development of Internet-based direct banking and ATMs often accelerating and accelerated by MAs has the opposite effect of reducing the need for longer opening hours. Given that successful management of the restructuring process is vital for achieving organizational objectives, managers need to be aware that downsizing is more than a reduction in head count and work reorganization. Terminations destroy the firms social fabric as structures are altered, relationships disrupted and work patterns and communication flows modified, making it more difficult for retained staff to do their work. These structural problems may inhibit performance so that staff need help to cultivate new ties, although insufficient attention is usually given to the intricate relationship between the organizations formal and informal structures. In addition, survivors who are already subject to survivors syndrome find they have to work harder to cover staffing shortfalls, with the consequence that increased workloads feed the stress related to job insecurity, undermining the very efficiency goals that motivated the merger or acquisition. Job insecurity may make employees feel pressured into agreeing to put extra effort into their jobs to demonstrate organizational loyalty; but such working conditions are neither sustainable nor conducive to the achievement of corporate objectives. Financial sector restructuring around the world has led to a high rate of call centre growth. Research by Deloitte Touche has found, for instance, that Australia has 1,400 call centres and help-desks employing 50,000 people and annual sales of $2 billion. Staff turnover averages 18 per cent a year mainly due to stress, as confirmed by the fact that 80 per cent of workers are requesting stress management training assistance. The annual cost to the industry from the high turnover has been estimated at around $100 million. MAs generate high levels of staff anxiety and stress as their working world is turned upside down, their jobs come under threat and their career prospects and professional competence are called into question. Collective defensive mechanisms, especially in hostile takeovers involving previously keen competitors, may lead to a victor-vanquished syndrome inducing behaviour inimical to the smooth implementation of changes for successful integration. Employees from each company are aware that there are many duplicated positions to be eliminated and the struggle to survive will be fierce. Trade unions may themselves be at loggerheads as the merger may involve companies recognizing different negotiating partners. Not surprisingly, it is much easier for managers to convince shareholders about the merits of proposed mergers than it is to persuade their own staff.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Narrative perspective and voice is a major aspect of a novella as Jeremy Hawthorn suggests in Studying the Novel, Ã¢â¬Å"[s]ource and medium affect the selection, the authority and the attitude towards what is recounted of the narrativeÃ¢â¬ The narrative perspective can be used to shape or in some cases mis-shape the story. Looking at both Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Pride and Prejudice and George EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Middlemarch, the narrators of these novellas hold a quality of influence over the reader. Through comparing and contrasting how the two different authors have used the narrative perspective to develop their novels, through voice, linguistic register, free indirect discourse and narrative distance in respect to the intimacy of the information shared with the reader. Looking at both Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Pride and Prejudice and George EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Middlemarch, the point of view otherwise known as perspective and voice, do contrast one another. Perspective and voice are defined by Hawthorn, as the views of the characters and events in the novella are relatable by human experience, which in turn makes the novella more realistic . Pride and Prejudice can be seen in this light as the narrator explains events as the plot unfolds. In this line of thinking the voice can be interrupted as third person semi-omniscient, but the perspective is mainly Elizabeth Bennett. The use of a semi-omniscient voice works well as information is not so readily disclosed to the reader. Within Middlemarch the voice would be third-person omniscient as the narrator knows all and discloses this information, but the perspective would predominantly be Dorothea, Lydgate and the narrative. Through the narrative, the reader discovers information before the other characters within the novella. As Ha... ...res that make these books continue to live on for centuries. Due to the constraints of the essay not all aspects of the narrative perspective could be discussed and the role they play with the novellas. Works Cited Ã¢â¬ ¢ Austen, J. Pride and Prejudice (Ware: Wordsworth Classics, 1993) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Eagleton, T The English Novel (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Eliot, G Middlemarch (Ware: Wardworth Classics, 1994) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hawthorn, J, Studying the Novel (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2010) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Morris, P Realism (Oxon: Routledge, 2003) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Newton, K.M. Ã¢â¬ËNarration in Middlemarch RevisitedÃ¢â¬â¢ in George Eliot Review, 42 (2011), p. 19-25,6 [accessed 1 April 2014] Ã¢â¬ ¢ Southam, B. C, Ã¢â¬ËJane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢, in The English Novel, ed. by A. E. Dyson (London: Oxford university Press, 1974)
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Formalistic Approach to Ode to the Death of a Favorite Cat (Favourite) :: Ode to the Death of a Favorite Cat Essays
Formalistic Approach to Ode to the Death of a Favorite Cat (Favourite)Ã Ã Ã Ode to the Death of a Favourite Cat is a very interesting poem especially when you begin to break it down using the formalistic approach to literature. This poem at first glance could be taken as just another story about a cat that drowns trying to eat his prey, the goldfish. As we look more closely we realize that the poem has so many more meanings. Ã The form of a poem is also a large component on the effectiveness. This poem has 7 stanzas with 6 lines in each. The third and sixth line in each is shorter and is indented. Thomas Gray used a rhyme scheme of AABCCB. The first way that an author can write his poem is by using a point of view that is either from the cat, goldfish, or a separate all together person, the observer. Thomas Gray chose to use the narrator approach. This use is very effective because it gives us the opinion of all of the characters involved. This also gives us a view of the entire story not just one persons perspective. Also the symbolism in this poem is largely effective. Gray doesn't simply describe things like green eyes. He goes into detail by using descriptive adjectives like emerald eyes, ears of jet, tortoise vies, snowy beard, and pensive Selima. The usage of these words adds to the ornamentation of the poem. The cat is also a symbolic character. She is described as a character that is somewhat closely related to what Freud describes as an Id. This is someone who is much like a two-year-old child. They only see what they want and go for it. In this person there is no sense of obstacles or that you might have to work to receive the prize this is not a thought in that person's head. Ã In this poem there are many examples of assonance . Assonance is a technique that repeats the beginning letters in a phrase to add emphasis. He uses phrases such as emerald eyes, golden gleam, and heedless hearts. This is effective because it adds to the use of metaphors and the distinction of the description. The structure of Thomas Gray's Ode to the death of a Favourite Cat is in order of events how they happen.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
We live in an imperfect world where human interactions breeds frictions occasioned by participation of different individuals in matters of society, economics and even religious inclinations of the different masses. Human beings have voluntarily or involuntarily found themselves in different areas of life due to their races or ideologies and consequently have had to act in line with a certain set of belief. Therefore this has bred differences in how a different society approaches issues relating to both governance and interaction and lack of consensus among individuals and sometimes groups within and without have led to violence. This violence is sometimes political and involves a set of organized military groups fighting for a certain goal that is usually political in nature. War is rough on the participants and mostly on innocent civilians caught in the middle of the chaos. The questions that strongly begs a just answer is Ã¢â¬Å"can there be a just war. Ã¢â¬ Hedge (2002) claims that in essence there is not much difference between the U S government and Alqueda arguing that despite what motives drives them to violence both the outcome is death of innocent civilians. However there are those who feel that to agree with Hedge would be to deny that there cannot be moral reasons to go to war and that the presuppositions behind the just war theory are fallacious and misguiding. In this regard it would be equal to agreeing that no reason should drive a country to wage war on another or even that terror groups must be allowed to exploit the weakness of less able nations in order to bring terror to perceived enemies. In my opinion such a stand is untenable and unrealistic and a way to avoid taking responsibility in accordance to the natural laws of justice that guarantees freedom and rights of individuals (Zupan, 2004). It is therefore important to highlight that it is hypocritical to deny that a party might be justified to wage war to counter similar aggressiveness or as way of stopping gross violations against fellow human beings. All human beings have a right to life is a clearly accepted fact and anything that contravenes such a fact would ordinarily be considered immoral and against fundamental pillars of justice, rights and freedoms. However whereby a war has been taken as to being justified then a waiver is taken in order to grant the involved parties the right to take away the lives of those perceived to be the enemies. In addition the loss of civilian life in the course of such a war is simply taken to be the costs of bringing such changes as necessitate that war. Hedge actually accuses Washington of stooping so low as to use death as a means of expressing its dissatisfaction with certain issues (Hedge, 2002). In other wars certain groups of people who previously viewed as morally incorrect might receive a change of perceptions simply because they direct their atrocities to the perceived enemy. In this regard the common phrase that an enemy of my enemy is my enemy becomes true. There are those who would argue for the sovereignty of nations and that a state has a right from external interference. In ordinary times such a status applies and there are clear efforts to observe and even promote the status quo. However in times of war sovereign borders are breached and this usually leads to the removal of leadership or occupation of such state. Hedge (2002) however seeks to point out that while he is not a war supporter, that it is sometimes important to use force to counter a force that is much immoral as compared to the countering force. It is therefore important then that we must understand that we have a moral responsibility to take care not to ignore or indeed breach the fundamental rights of citizens as we engage in war. Hedges, C. (2002). War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning. New York: Anchor books. Zupan, D. (2004). War, Morality and Autonomy. London: Ashgate publishings.
Monday, September 16, 2019
High school is a place where students can slide easily through. They do not have to put forth any effort to get a good grade. They feel that they can get maximum achievement with minimum work. To some high school is way too easy and that they can just cake walk through. However, to others, such as author Daniel Bruno, it is an imperfect reality that many high school students get sucked into. In his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Entitlement Education,Ã¢â¬ Daniel Bruno courageously uncovers the truth about how high school students take advantage of the No Child Left Behind policy. Daniel goes behind the curtains to reveal real life high school and how students are not trying to achieve greatness but just enough or nothing at all. In America we have a society that allows our students to not try their best in school. Students wake up knowing that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to try as hard because they will receive a passing grade. Daniel exposes how students are under prepare for college because they lack the knowledge being taught in high school. They do not pay close attention because again they expect or they feel that they are entitled to a good grade. They will also be cheated because their lives will be less. They will get find his or her self at a disadvantage on a job. They say that intelligence is the quality of his or her life. A person may have knowledge but no intelligence. So, they can know all the facts there is to know but cannot apply it to solve problems or make connections. In conclusion, entitlement does go on forever. They are cheated out of a number of things before they even realize it. Entitlement is only handicapping high school students from the next level which is college. Entitlement can ruin the dreams of students who are caught up in this unreal reality and think they are entitled to anything. Work Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Almanac.Ã¢â¬ The Chronicle of Higher Education. Chronicle Of Higher Education, 2000. Web. 18 Oct. 2001.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
In Princess de cleves which is believed to be written by Madam La Fayette irony has been used to describe the heroine who is torn between her duty and love. While her heart is passionate about her lover, her sense of duty towards her husband and above all the societal norms forbade her to do so. In the very first scene the writer describes about the splendor and magnificence of the court of Henry II ,it is inhabited by beautiful ladies and handsome gallants. The heroine gets impressed by it but her mother warns her against false appearances because she knows that outwardly these people are attractive but inwardly they are all jealous of each other. Ã¢â¬Å"If you judge by appearances in this placeÃ¢â¬ ¦you will often be deceived, because what appeals to be the case hardly ever is. Ã¢â¬ (Introduction, Princess de cleves by Penguin Classics pg. 4). Here we see a form of situational irony because the princess takes the outward appearances of people to be their true self while they are quite contrary to it. Again when she refuses to see Nemours but he is brought to her room by her own husband; it is a dramatic irony for the husband who is unaware that Nemours is his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s lover. Princess de Cleves questions the false norms of the society which demand that princess should follow the path of duty while heart yearns for love. Her world is ruined by her passion but throughout the novel she pretends that she is in control of her life. In the end her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s words: Ã¢â¬Ëwhat appeals to be the case hardly ever isÃ¢â¬â¢ are applicable to her as well. Jazz 2 Tartuffe, a comedy by Moliere mocks at the people who are befooled by hypocrites in the name of religion. In Act I when Orgon returns home, he asks his maid Dorine about the news of the family, Dorine reports that Madam was down with fever and headache but Orgon is more concerned about his Ã¢â¬Ëfriend and mentorÃ¢â¬â¢ TartuffeÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Dorine reports that he is well but Orgon says that he is a Ã¢â¬Ëpoor man. Ã¢â¬â¢ The dialogue continues and Dorine reports that Madam could not take her supper nor could she sleep but Tartuffe ate up two patridges and half a leg of mutton and slept quite well Orgon again calls him Ã¢â¬Ëpoor man. Ã¢â¬â¢ We experience a verbal irony in the following comment by Dorine Ã¢â¬Å"they are both doing well and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go straightway and inform my mistress how pleased you are at her recovery. Ã¢â¬ ( by Wilbur ActI , Scene II) In the next scene when Orgon is talking to Cleante , he says that Tartuffe has totally transformed him and now he has no love for his wife, children or mother he can even see them dying without caring a snap to which Cleante replies Ã¢â¬Å"Your feelings are humane , I must say brother! Ã¢â¬ ( by Wilbur ActI , scene VI). Here we see a verbal comedy because Cleante actually means it is Ã¢â¬ËinhumanÃ¢â¬â¢. Through the irony in this play Moliere emphasizes that people should not be gullible to religious zealots, as Cleante says that wise men Ã¢â¬Ëdo not make noise of their deeds of honorÃ¢â¬â¢ and ones who do so are actually hypocrites fooling people. Jazz 3 In the poem Nathan the wise Lessing questions the reality of all the religions. When all the religions believe in God then why each considers his religion to be superior? This is itself an irony. In act III when Nathan appears before sultan Saladin he thinks that he will be asked to part with his money because he has been told by Al Hafi that sultan just wants to rob people and Nathan is just like any other trader who supplies him with money . On the contrary sultan asks him to answer his question Ã¢â¬âwhich religion is better or is preferred by Nathan because Sultan considers Nathan as a wise man who can answer his questions. This may be described as a form of structural irony where the unexpected thing happens . As Nathan says Ã¢â¬Å"I came prepared with cash-he asks truth. Truth? as if truth too were cashÃ¢â¬âa coin disuÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ ( Taylor and Lewes, Act III). Lessing uses structural irony in Act IV when Friar tells Nathan that he is the same man who gave him the girl child. Nathan says that his own family was burnt alive by Christians but he brought up the Christian girl as his own child and looked after her lovingly. Friar is touched and says that Nathan is a true Christian. Ã¢â¬Å"Nathan you are a true Christian! Yes, by GodÃ¢â¬ Nathan: Ã¢â¬Å"Heaven bless us! What makes me to you a Christian makes you to me a jew. Ã¢â¬ (Taylor and Lewes, act IV). Here they are praising again their own religions but fail to realize the oneness of their Gods. This poem gives a strong message that we have different religions and faiths and we consider our religion to be superior which teaches us to worship Ã¢â¬ËourÃ¢â¬â¢ God but who , ironically is one . Works Cited Cave , Terence (translator) Princess de cleves Oxford world classics. UK (13 march ,2009) La Fayette. The Princess de Cleves Penguin classicsUK. (first published, March 1678) Lessing Ephraim Gotthold. Nathan the Wise translated by Taylor William And Lewes lee Charles, Leipzig 1868. (14 march 2009) Wilbur, Richard(translator) Tartuffe: comedy in five acts Ã¢â¬Å"A Harvest/HBJ bookÃ¢â¬ ( first published 1669)
Saturday, September 14, 2019
General motors is a multinational corporation that was begun in 1908 by William Durant.Ã It has ever since extended its services to several foreign countries including Mexico. It is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest known company for manufacturing of automobile (Cray & Chrome 1980).Its outstanding business activities in Mexico are among others, provision of high quality Products in order to remain competitive in the global economy.Ã The leaders inGeneral Motors have also invented business plans that enable them to reduce the costs of theÃ Intensive engineering, prototyping as well as tooling activities they operates in Mexico(http://www.gm.com)Ã The General motors management team has established a net working program for hiring new employees so as to facilitate manufacturing and marketing of heir automobiles.Ã The corporation has also expanded an initiative known as jumpstart in Mexico whose main goals are to indoctrinate those who have been newly hired into the corporationsÃ¢â ¬â¢ culture and to give them a chance of meeting employees in other parts of the corporation so as to get exposed to the corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ business leaders (Cray & Chrome, 1980).Ã This ensures smooth running of the business activities since high employee relation is established and maintained.General motors operations on the host country, Mexico, has some comparative advantages. Compared to the US, labor costs in Mexico are much lower and therefore General Motors Corporation stands a good chance in Mexico as opposed to US since it cheaply obtain its parts production. At the same time General Motors Corporation in Mexico does not encounter stiff competition for skills and technology from many automobile companies than it could encounter in the US (Maurice, 1995).This is well explained by the fact that US is believed to gain those jobs that require high skills and technology as it trades with Mexico.Ã This indicates that most of the scientists and engineers who have the req uired skills and technology secure jobs in the General motors corporation (Lance & Ian 1998). Since it is a well paying and established compensations compared to any other automobile corporation in the country.The environmental issues that prevailed during the on set of the General Motors Corporation in Mexico such as rising costs of health care as well as pension costs really affected rapid growth of the company. General motors however, have worked on these issues through working extensively with the Workers Union on ways for trimming down the healthÃ care costs for the workers their families as well as the retirees (http:delphi.com/about/social/)Although General Motors Corporation in Mexico was well established, it also faced stiff and competitive pressure form the other automobile companies.Ã This could lead to lower sales than expected by the management and overall economic strain to the company. However, General Motors Company have embarked on innovation ever since and it has expanded computer as well as electronic content on their vehicles (Lorean & John, 1980).Ã It has also extended its recruitment to cover most technologically advanced countries like China, Europe and India hence acquiring high skilled scientists and engineers.There is also the issue of globalization that entirely has benefited the General Motors Corporation.Ã It has been much easier for the company to get access to the technology that is being developed around the world (Jagdish, 2004). In Defense of Globalization.Oxford University Press.Ã The different scientists and engineers recruited by the General Motors from diverse cultures influence the culture of the host country, Mexico. The stiff competition brought in by globalization has also made it difficult for the Mexico-based automobile companies to compete in the market especially the small companies (Frederick, 1947)Resolving these issues has serious financial commitment and long-term expenses especially when the high skilled scientists and engineers demand for better salaries.The Acme motors should put in place strong criteria upon which its workers are hired or employed so as to improve and maintain supply of high quality automobiles to its clients. The workers should be able to conduct thorough research and be technologically innovative so as to enable Acme motors compete sufficiently in the global market.References.Cray, E. & Chrome C. (1980). General Motors and Its Time. New York: McGraw-Hill.Cray, E. & Chrome C. (1980).A History of General Motors. New York: SmithmarkÃ De Lorean & John Z. (1980).On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.David M. (2003).What the Market Does to People: Privatization, Globalization, and Poverty.Ã Clarity Press.Frederick H. (1947). Patterns of Union-Management Relations: United Automobile Workers (CIO), General Motors.Science Research Associates.Jagdish B. (2004). In Defense of Globalization.Oxford. University Press.Maurice E. (1995).Electronic Technology, Corporate Strategy, and World Transformation.Quorum Books.Lance D. & Ian M. (1998).Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology.Ã Ã Routledge.Retrieved on 24th 2008, from http://www.gm.comRetrieved on 24th January 2008Retrieved on 24th January 2008, from http://delphi.com/about/social/